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Craving and Aversion as Addiction and Denial:
     Buddha's Eightfold Path as a Step Program
     Note: this book holds a comprehensive narrative survey of the teachings
     of Theravada Buddhism - it is not simply about addiction and recovery.

A Bibliography of Buddhism (and Recovery)

Buddhism Study Links,
     with Addiction and Recovery Resources


An Outline of the Buddha’s Teachings

And Glossary of Buddhism’s Basic Concepts

© bradford hatcher, 2013, Rev. 5-21-13

    This outline is organized around doctrines from the Theravada branch of Buddhism. This branch is more textually, ethically and philosophically conservative than the other three schools (Mahayana, Vajrayana and Chan/Zen). And it's more challenging intellectually. This web page is intended to serve as a comprehensive introductory outline, or crib sheet, and as an organized glossary. Pali is the lingua franca of Theravada, as Sanskrit is of the Mahayana schools. I have given the Sanskrit equivalents to the Pali wherever I could find them, but lack the resources to be thorough here. I welcome contributions to this ongoing effort. Throughout, the Pali will be given in bold type, and the Sanskrit, where I have any, in italics, thus:

Pali Dhamma, Dharma Sanskrit

    I have tried to give a range of glosses for each of the concepts, rather than a single definition or word substitution. This should give a fuller or more rounded understanding of the terms than translations permit. It should also make searching for terms easier, for those who only have English translations. Many of the terms occur multiple times here, for which the "find" command on your browser will prove useful.
    Several major aspects of the doctrine as found in the Tipitaka or classical Buddhist scriptures are being intentionally left out. For example, I don't see much use for the multitude of heavens and hells, and the devas and asuras, their appeal to the Jungian mythologists notwithstanding. Lists like "the thirty-two marks of the great man" did not make any sense here. Neither have I included many of the flowery and hyperbolic terms for the ultimate mental states and meditative achievements. In short I have tried to strip the glamor off.
    Most of the major headings and categories and many of the individual items have their own Wikipedia pages, which will often point to other resources, expand further on the subject and shed further light on the topics from the Mahayana, Vajrayana and Chan points of view. I have provided links to many of these pages - just click (Wiki) (Outline of Buddhism). And sometimes there is a second page (Wiki) (Glossary of Buddhism) and sometimes there is a link to somewhere else (More) (Buddhist Publication Society free downloads). Certain references such as DN 3 refer to the Pali Canon, the Theravada Buddhist scriptures. Most of these scriptures are available online at no cost, see Bibliography and Links.

Skip ahead to:

I The Four Noble Truths 

II The Noble Eightfold Path 

III Value-Neutral Enumerated Factors

IV Kusala - Wholesome Practices and States of Mind

V Akusala - Unwholesome Processes and States of Mind

VI Glossary of Terms in Categories

VII Glossary of Miscellaneous Terms

VIII Final Words

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I. The Four Noble Truths 

Ariya Sacca, Arya Satya; cattari ariya-saccani, catvariarya-satyani (Wiki)

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1. Dukkhe Nanam, Knowledge of suffering. The most pressing fact of existence, in a word, is Dukkha, Duhkha, unsatisfactoriness, imperfection, inability to satisfy, frustration, vulnerability, unease, stress, pain, hardship, discomfort, what is hard to endure, usually rendered as suffering. (Wiki)

★ In three words, the Three Marks or Characteristics of Existence: Tilakkhana, Trilakshana, the three common characteristics of compound things. (Wiki)

• Anicca, Anitya, impermanence, transitoriness, inconstancy, transience, conditionedness, ephemerality, panta rhei. All things pass. Nothing is perfect or everlasting. Whatever you want to have last forever is certain to disappoint. "Whatever things have an origin must come to cessation" DN 3. (Wiki)

• Dukkha, Duhka, unsatisfactoriness, frustration, suffering; the insurmountable incompleteness of existence. Happiness as asymptote. Pursuit has ends, but no end. To seek the pleasant and avoid the unpleasant is the nature of life but a doomed endeavor, unless a solution can be found on a level above the problem. (Wiki)

• Anatta, Anatman, no self, no real or lasting identity, no inner core, no soul, no spirit, insubstantiality, non-independence, the utter and complete impersonality of existence. What appears to be self is a compounded thing, or more correctly, a process. It has a conventional reality, not a substantive one. There is no doer apart from things getting done, no thinker thinking. (Wiki)

Sammasana-nana is the exploration and contemplation of individual phenomena in terms of these three marks. See the Three Liberations or Gates (Vimokkha, Vimoksha) below. Signlessness (animitta) desirelessness (appanihita) and emptiness (sunnata) are doors through these three difficulties.

★ The Five Aggregates (Panca khandas, Panca Skandhas) are groups of factors comprising the perceived individual identity of living beings. Collectively the five are also called the Existing Person (Sakkaya) or body, the current assemblage or identity, the shifting components of the sense of self. They are also called the five aggregates affected by clinging, grasping or holding (panca-upadana-kkhandha). These are the parts of our empirical personalities. (Wiki)

• Rupa, Rupa, matter, material qualities, physical form, shape, corporeality, what makes phenomena sensible, the basis for figure-ground perception, boundaries where qualities change (Wiki). Rupa is constituted from the four elements. (Wiki)

• Vedana, Vedana, sensation, feeling, reception, sense reaction to contact. Largely understood in terms of pleasantness (sukha, sukha), unpleasantness (dukkha, duhka), or neutrality, neither painful nor pleasant (adukkhamasukha). This is the beginning of wanting more and wanting less. (Wiki)

• Sanna, Samjna, perception, conception, label, allusion; discerning, interpretation or recognition; act of memory or recognition, assimilation of experience, what gets remembered, matching mental to sensible boundaries, "distinguishing a thing by its marks" SN 22.79. These are discussed in six classes, by sense organ, including mind. (Wiki)

• Sankhara, Samskara, mental formations, coefficients of consciousness, ideas, methods, models, determinations, constructions, functioning of mind, discriminations, fabrications, fashionings. Conditioned phenomena. In a broader sense, sankhara refers to any formation, compound or fabrication, and so can refer to the khandas themselves. Here boundaries have been drawn around the perceived and this is placed in a context in functional relationships with others. Motivations, "the volitional, emotive and intellective aspects of mental life" (B. Nanamoli). These too are discussed in six classes, by sense, including mental objects or formations. (Wiki)

• Vinnana, Vijnana, consciousness, awareness, cognizance, cognition. Also in six classes. Unlike in some religions, consciousness is not some otherworldly or spiritual substrate of existence, nor is it what creates existence It is merely another process of existence. "Annatra paccaya natthi vinnanassa sambhavo: there is no arising of consciousness without reference to a condition" MN 38. (Wiki) 

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2. Dukkha samudaye nanam. Knowledge of suffering's origin. Suffering arises or originates (samudaya, samudaya) out of a network of causes, the Chain of Dependent or Conditioned Arising or Origination (Paticca Samuppada, Pratiya Samutpada). This chain is frequently represented by the eighth link in the chain, Desire, Craving or Thirst (Tanha, Trisna), selfish motives of the illusory self (Atta, Atman) that lead to endless becoming or journeying (samsara, samsara). 

★ Tanha is the standard representative for the second truth and, used broadly, encompasses both craving and aversion, wanting what is not to be and wanting what is to not be. Where two representatives from the Chain are used, these are usually  avijja and tanha. (Wiki)

• Kama-tanha, There is craving for sensual pleasure and enjoyment of sense objects, eros

• Bhava-tanha, And craving for being, continued existence, to be and be more, for all eternity, ontos

• Vibhava-tanha, And craving not to be, for non-being, extermination, extinction, fugue, denial, aversion, to be separated from pain and unpleasantness, thanatos

Chanda is another Pali word for desire or zeal, but often this carries the meaning of want for higher and more wholesome states.

★ Suffering is conditioned by the three Unwholesome Roots (Akusala-mulas, Akushala-mula) or the Three Poisons (Tivisa, Trivisa). These three are also called the makers of measurement (pamanakarana) perhaps because they divide the world into pieces for apportionment. Wise attention (yoniso manasikara) is required to cut off these roots. (Wiki)

• Lobha, Lobha, or Raga, Raga, craving, covetousness, thirst, desire, passion, lust, greed, attachment, unskillful desire, self-centered desire for more. Raga is closer to simple passion (that complicates things). This term is more common in Mahayana. (Wiki)

• Dosa, Dvesha, aversion, hatred, anger, aggression, fear of getting what we don't want or not getting what we want, avoidance, rejection, a will to be separate, from unwise contemplation of repulsive objects. Covers a wide range of hostile feelings. Synonyms vyapada and patigha. (Wiki)

• Moha, Moha, delusion, mental dullness or darkness, infatuation, stupidity, bewilderment, confusion, ignorance, folly, sentimentality. (Wiki)

★ With only one item changed, suffering is also said to arise out of three Defilements (Kilesas, Kleshas), impurities, inclinations to vice expanded in other places to ten (Wiki)

• Avijja, Avidya, ignorance, nescience, unawareness, not knowing, blindness, delusion, misunderstanding. Ignorance is the first in the chain of causation and the last of the fetters. (Wiki)

• Lobha, Lobha, or Raga, Raga, craving, thirst, desire, passion, lust, greed, attachment, unskillful desire, self-centered desire for more

• Dosa, Dvesha, aversion, hatred, anger, aggression, fear of getting what we don't want or not getting what we want, avoidance, rejection, a will to be separate, from unwise contemplation of repulsive objects. Covers a wide range of hostile feelings. Synonyms vyapada and patigha.

Conditioned or Dependent Arising (Paticca-samuppada, Pratiya-samutpada). (Wiki) and (Wiki). One thing leads to another as suffering is created out of a chain of twelve Causes (Nidanas, Nidanas), sources or foundations. The twelve links begin with ignorance. In another part of the doctrine the chain is continued beyond suffering to condition Liberation (vimutti). See Eleven Supporting Conditions or Proximate Causes (Upanisa). The chain of conditioned or dependent arising: 

• Avijja, Avidya, ignorance, nescience, unawareness, not knowing, blindness, delusion, misunderstanding. Driven blindly forward, subject to being made into this and that. (Wiki)

• Sankhara, Samskara, mental reactions, coefficients of consciousness, kamma formations, determinations, constructions, impressions, consequences, functioning of mind, discriminations, mental activities. What the past has made and brings to the present. (Wiki)

• Vinnana, Vijnana, consciousness, awareness, cognizance, cognition. In six classes according to the five senses and mind. Being alerted by irritants and inconsistencies. Not regarded as a fundamental property of existence even if it is central to experience. (Wiki)

• Nama-rupa, Namarupa, mind-and-body, mentality-materiality, both cognitive and physical sides of individual existence, phenomena as experienced. Literally name-and-form. This is not the spirit vs. matter dualism found in Hinduism. They are interdependent. (Wiki)

• Salayatana, Shadayatana, the six senses, a sixfold base (ayatana) sense medium, extents, or spheres. See Six Sense Bases (Sadayatana, Sadayatana) below (Wiki)

• Phassa, Sparsha, contact, sensory and mental contact, sense with object and awareness, what reaches us. Being touched, moved, gotten to, impressed or impinged upon, connecting, tuning in, but prior to our reaction to this. (Wiki)

• Vedana, Vedana, feeling or sensation; Sense reaction to contact, raw experiences as positive, negative and neutral, not yet as articulated and meaningful. Hedonic tone. This is the beginning of wanting more and wanting less, the value of acceptance or rejection. (Wiki)

• Tanha, Trishna, desire, craving or thirst, but including the desire to be separated from noxious stimuli. The actual wanting more and wanting less. (Wiki)

• Upadana, Upadana, clinging, grasping, holding or attachment; intake or uptake, as of fuel, like oil for a lamp, or nutriment, for good or ill. Adding to your weight or gravitas. (Wiki)

• Bhava, Bhava, (process of) becoming or be-ing as a verb, existence as standing out, growth for its own sake, maturation (Wiki)

• Jati, Jati, future birth or rebirth, arisig of new living entties, birth from eggs, wombs, moisture and transformations. (Wiki)

• Jaramarana, Jaramaranam, old age and death; aging or decay (jara), illness (byadhi) and death (marana), sorrow, sullenness or mental suffering (domanassa), lamentation (parideva), pain (dukkha), grief or sorrow (soka) and despair (upayasa). (Wiki)

The chain is most readily broken between vedana and tanha, unless phassa is avoided altogether.

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3. Dukkha nirodhe nanam. Knowledge of suffering's cessation or eradication. Suffering Ceases (Nirodha, Nirodha) or is extinguished not by more craving and aversion but by breaking the chain of causes and extinguishing the passionate illusion of self.  The extinction of craving (tanhakkhayo) is Nibbana SN 3:190 (Wiki)

Buddha strung these five words into one sentence about nirodha SN 1:39:

Nirodha complete cessation, eradication, extinction
Caga
selflessness, relinquishment, giving up; generosity, liberality,
Patinissagga
abandoning, relinquishment, renouncement, forsaking
Mutti
release, deliverance, escape, liberation
Analayo
detachment, freedom from desire

Eradication is a good gloss for nirodha since the word carries the old word for root - one extinguishes suffering here by pulling out causes by the root, or cutting them off at the source. This freedom, in its highest form, is known as nibbana, nirvana, extinguishing, extinction or unbinding. The dissolution (bhanga, bhanga) of the false will not take the seeker to a better elsewhere or heaven but to reality-as-it-is, in reality, yathabhuta, yathabhutam, the correct, or to the here-and-now, suchness, tathata, tathata. It's a long journey and a lot of work to arrive here. The knowledge and vision of things as they really are is yatha-bhuta nana-dassana.

Conditionality is specific (idappaccayata), this/that conditionality. As to arising itself, when there is a chain of causes: "When this exists, that comes to be; with the  arising of this, that arises. When this does not exist, that does not come to be; with the cessation of this, that ceases." MN115. Phenomena remain only as long as their causes or conditions remain. Consequently they may be undone by breaking the chain and undoing the causes.

Just as suffering is brought about by a chain of causes in Conditioned or Dependent Arising, described above in the Second Noble Truth, so too does liberation have its own causal sequences by which it emerges. There are Twelve Supporting Conditions or Proximate Causes (Upanisa), also termed Transcendental Dependent Arising (lokuttara-paticcasamuppada) in the Nettipakarana, a later Pali text. This is an eleven-step extension of the chain of dependent arising, charting steps upward from suffering to emancipation, a further conditional structure. SN 12:23 / S II 29 Upanisa Sutta, See also MN 74. This sutta has not received the attention it deserves, particularly with respect to the progress of recovery from states of suffering. Bhikkhu Bodhi has written a must-read translation and exposition of this (More). There is one notable difference, though, between the two chains. In the chain of Conditioned Arising we see suffering and its preconditions as emergent properties. In the chain of Transcendental Arising, the end state is an abiding in reality-as-it-is, that which does not still have to come to be. "What is new under the sun" here, the emergent quality, is the gradual awakening to reality, which is marked by the gradual disappearance of the emergent phenomena that stood in the way of this.

• Dukkha, Duhkha, suffering. Some regard this step as a substitution for jaramarana, old age and death. showing the need for a way out. This may be equivalent to "hitting bottom," seeing with horror and urgency where life until now has led (samvega)

• Saddha, Sraddha, faith, conviction or confidence, knowing that there is a way out. As such, suffering is its supporting condition. Repeatedly arising or tentative faith (aparaparam uppajjana-saddha), to be confirmed.

• Pamojja, Pramudita, joy, gladness, relief

• Piti, Priti, exhilaration, elation, ecstasy, rapture, joy, bliss, delight, zest, refreshment, enthusiasm. See glossary for five stages. 

• Passaddhi, Prasada, tranquility, serenity, a detumescence of rapture, a need for no greater intensity. (Wiki)

• Sukha, Sukha, happiness, pleasantness, pleasure, ease, satisfaction, happiness, blessedness, well-being, "the happiness of access (upacara) to absorption," a knowing that the solutions  to suffering are at hand

• Samadhi, Samadhi, mental concentration or concentrative absorption. Distractions of the hindrances are further out of the way

• Yathabhuta nanadassana, Yathabhutam jnanadarsana, knowledge & vision of what actually is, of things as they are, the development of insight (vipassana bhavana)

• Nibbida, Nirvedh, disenchantment, more serene here than disgust, revulsion or aversion but often translated this way, more of a choice that the more common and familiar states are no longer worth the trouble. Knowing better now, having found out. Releases the charge, hence discharge, leading to dispassion

• Viraga, Vairagya, dispassion, fading of passions, no-raga, cessation of affectively toned action and reraction, stepping into the supramundane life (lokuttara)

• Vimutti, Mukti or Vyamokh, liberation, emancipation, release. See liberation in glossary

• Asavakkhaya-nana, Asravakshaya-jnana, knowledge of the ending or destruction of the defilements, taints, cankers or stains, the defilements of sensation and lust, becoming and ego, false view and misquided belief, and ignorance and delusion.

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4. Dukkha nirodha-gamini-patipadaya nanam. Knowledge of the path to suffering's cessation. There is an ancient path (purana-magga, purana-maggam) to the cessation or extinction of suffering.  It is known as the Noble Eightfold Path (Ariya Atthangika Magga, Arya Ashtangika Marga). It is also called the Middle Way (Majjimha patipada, Madhyama pratipad) as it is said to lie between the extremes of self-mortification and sensual gratification, or between nihilism (natthikavada, uccheda-ditthi or annihilation view) and eternalism (sassata-ditthi or eternal view). (Wiki)

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II. The Noble Eightfold Path 

(Ariya Atthangika Magga, Arya Ashtangika Marga) (Wiki)

There are eight behavioral values here, preceded by Samma, usually translated "Right." The word also connotes complete, coherent, perfect, ideal, skillful, optimal and wholesome.

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1. Samma Ditthi, Samyag Drsti, Right View, point of view, perspective. outlook, opinion, belief, understanding. Attempts to keep the large picture or frame of reference in mind, the Four Noble Truths and the ephemeral, unsatisfactory and illusory nature of the self (anicca, dukkha, anatta, above). This is to see things as they are, not as they appear, not to accept or deny, not to cling or refuse. The default value of the word ditthi in Buddhism is negative, i.e. problematic views. Ditthigata refers to fixed or pre-established views. (Wiki)

Of primary importance is the view that beings are responsible for their own kamma, karma (sabbe satta kammasaka, all beings own their karma). This is called Right view of the Ownership of Action (kammassakata sammaditthi). Simply put, own what you have done and you own what you do.

"Beings are the owners of their actions, heirs of their actions; they originate from their actions, are bound to their actions, have their actions for refuge. It is action that distinguishes beings as inferior and superior." MN 135

This acceptance of responsibility is the first step to freedom. Guidelines for behavior are developed further in subsequent steps on the Path. Learn to know good or wholesome (kusala) kamma as it develops the mind and benefits others, and bad or unwholesome (akusala) kamma as it defiles the mind and harms others.

Next in importance and essential to rising above the most mundane cause-and-effect, is knowledge and insight into the Four Noble Truths:

• Dukkhe nanam, penetrative insight into the truth of suffering.

• Dukkha samudaye nanam, penetrative insight into the truth of the origination of suffering.

• Dukkha nirodhe nanam, penetrative insight into the truth of the cessation of suffering.

• Dukkha nirodhagaminipatipaddya nanam, penetrative insight into the truth of the path leading to the cessation of suffering. 

There are two more conditions for right view: the voice of another (parato ghosa) and wise attention (yoniso-manasikara) MN 43.

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2. Samma Sankappa, Samyak Sankalpa, Right Intention, thought, aim, commitment, purpose, aspiration, mindset, plan, motive or resolve. This focuses on endeavors which cure suffering, with a commitment to ethical and mental self-improvement. It is assuming a higher purpose, or intending to become worthy of one. A process called Thought Substitution (tadanga) replaces the negative with the positive. This is not the good intention that the road to hell is paved with: it is the intention is to self-correct, not yet to fix the world. There are three primary practices here:

• Nekkhamma, Nishkama, renunciation of craving and desire (as distinct from need), resisting the draw of desire and sensuality, no-kama. This requires deep, systematic attention (yoniso-manasikara) to the unwholesome root of desire. This is the opposite of and substitution for sense craving or sense passion (kama-tanha or kama-raga). (Wiki)

• Abyapada, absence of aversion, ill will, anger and animosity; intention of good will, resisting the draw of anger. It is loving-kindness (metta), to get the kamma moving in the right direction. Metta, of course, needs to begin with self-acceptance and self-love, the non-existence of self notwithstanding. This is the opposite of and substitution for aversion, ill will, anger and animosity (vyapada, patigha or dosa).  (Wiki) (Wiki)

• Avihimsa, Ahimsa, intention of harmlessness, resisting the draw to violence, cruelty and harm. This is compassion (karuna). This is the opposite of and substitution for harmfulness, cruelty, violence, injury (vhimsa). (Wiki)

Mental intent, will or volition (cetana, cetana) propels the mind forward into wholesome (kusala) or unwholesome (akusala) states. The acts of cetana are kamma, which implies directed action. (Wiki)

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3. Samma Vaca, Samyag Vak, Right Speech. Abstinences (Veramani or Virati) from various types of speech (More) (Wiki)

• Musavada veramani avoids falsehood, lying or deceit and speaks truth, reliably and worthy of confidence

• Pisunaya vacaya veramani avoids tale bearing, slander, backbiting, calumny, malicious or divisive talk or speech and speaks to reconciliation, friendship, concord or harmony

• Pharusaya vacaya veramani avoids harsh, abusive, impolite, hurtful, insulting, sarcastic, offensive talk or speech and speaks to benefit, refinement or courtesy

• Samphappalapa veramani avoids gossip, useless, frivolous, pointless, fruitless, senseless, shallow, silly, vain, idle talk or speech, chatter and foolish babble and "speaks at the right time, what is correct and to the point (atthavadi)" DN 1

One speaks well-spoken words (subhasitasutta) at the right time, in accord with facts, what is useful and profitable, gently, with a kind heart.  See MN 27, 38, 51; wise words, words to be treasured, words in season DN 28; timely, affectionate and honest 

Low or animal conversations (tiracchanakatha) are described at AN 10.69

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4. Samma Kammanta, Samyak Karmanta, Right Action, conduct or doing, observation of the precepts or abstentions not as commandments (there is no moral authority in Buddhism) but as an ethic adopted to end suffering. Right Action recognizes that all action or doing (kamma, karma) has consequences which may be escaped in advance by not doing wrong action. Kammanta is the same root word as Kamma, so in a way Right Action could also be translated "good karma." If there were a self, such an ethic could be called self-serving - the results of unwholesome actions impede one's progress towards the end of suffering.

★ The simplest formulation of Right Action is in the Five Precepts  (Panca Silani, Panca Silani). The word sila means moral disciple or virtuous conduct, with the connotations of practice and habit. (Wiki)

• Panatipata veramani (or virati), restraint from injuring or killing living or sentient creatures or taking life or destruction of life, being desirous of the welfare of all sentient beings or creatures (pani or satta). This is closely related to harmlessness (avihimsa).

• Adinnadana veramani, restraint from taking what is not given, by theft or deceit. Replace with satisfaction and generosity.

• Kamesu micchacara veramani, restraint from misconduct in sensual pleasures. Elsewhere this is specified as sexual misconduct, ignoble practice or unchastity (abrahmacariya, abrahmacarya) and primarily refers (for the laity) to adultery, rape and relations with women who are married or betrothed or have not come of age. Monks are enjoined from any sexual activity.

★ In places, e.g. DN 5, two more sila are added to make the Five Precepts (Panca sikkhapada)

• Musavada veramani lying, deceit, speaking falsehood, false or incorrect talk or speech

• Surameraya-majja-pamadatthana veramani, restraint from using wine, liquor or intoxicants which result in heedlessness or negligence (pamada, pramada) of the mind or emotions. This qualification is interesting in that it leaves open a question about intoxicants that do not cause heedlessness. Grammatically, the line does not say that all intoxicants lead to heedlessness, as is often implied by translators.

Further moral discipline continues with the assumption of Ten Precepts (Dasa-sila, Dasa-sila),  aversions to or abstentions from (Veramani-sikkhapadam samadiyami) further unwholesome behavioral missteps: (Wiki)

★ For the laity, the list goes on to round out the Ten requisites of good behavior (Dasa-sila) with six more abstinences (Veramani)

• Pisuna-vacaya from tale bearing, slander, backbiting, calumny, malicious, divisive talk or speech

• Pharusa-vacaya from harsh, abusive, impolite, hurtful, insulting, sarcastic, offensive talk or speech

• Samphapalapa-vacaya from gossip, useless, frivolous, pointless, fruitless, senseless, shallow, silly, vain, idle talk or speech, chatter and foolish babble 

• Abhijjhaya from covetousness, envy, unrighteous greed

• Vyapada, Vairam (or byapada), aversion, ill will, animosity, malice, anger, hatred, malevolence, hostility, resistance, irritation. Vyapada has synonyms at patigha, pratigha, dosa, dvesha and others.

• Micchaditthiya, Mithyadrishti, wrong views, misbelief, misunderstanding

★ While for the monks and nuns (bhikku, bhikkuni) the Dasa-sikkhapadani continue thus:

• Surameraya-majja-pamadatthana veramani, using wine, liquor and intoxicants which result in heedlessness or negligence.

• Vikala-bhojana, solid food after noon

• Nacca-gita-vadita-visuka-dassana, a litany is given of various sensual entertainments

• Mala-gandha-vilepana-dharana-mandana-vibhusana-tthana, various bodily decorations

• Ucca-sayana-maha-sayana, high and luxurious beds

• Jatarupa-rajata-patiggahana (monks only) gold and silver

While the precepts are not commandments, rules for the behavior of monks are taken seriously, and some violations entail suspension for life.

Normal, natural, genuine or without-crisis morality is pakati-sila (good natured). To the extent that sila requires initial concentration and effort, it is also initial training in mindfulness (sati) and concentration (samadhi).

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5. Samma Ajiva, Samyag Ajiva, Right Livelihood or Occupation abandons ways of living which bring harm and suffering to other living beings. "These are the five types of business that a lay follower should not engage in." Vanijja Sutta, AN 5.177:

• Satthavanijja, trafficking in weapons, or lethal arms

• Sattavanijja, trafficking in human beings, slave trading, prostitution, children

• Mamsavanijja, trafficking in meat or flesh, raising animals for slaughter and  butchery

• Majjavanijja, trafficking in intoxicants (drinks and drugs)

• Visavinijja, trafficking in poisons or toxic products

★ The householder or layman may help himself to four kinds of happiness (sukha) or satisfactoriness AN 62:A ii:69:

• Atthi-sukha, economic security, sufficient means, ownership, wealth righteously gained

• Bhoga-sukha, happiness from wise expenditure of lawful wealth to make merit

• Anana-sukha, happiness of not being in debt, of not owing others

• Anavajja-sukkha, happiness of blamelessness in body, speech and mind

★ In the Majimha Nikaya Sutta 117, and in the Vsm I:61-65, five more ideas are set forth for the monks about wrong livelihood by deceit (Kuhanadi micchajiva):

• Kuhana, scheming, pretending, deceit, trickery, fraud, especially by means of working wonders

• Lapana, flattery, muttering, talking to please donors with a view to acquiring gain, honor and renown 

• Nemittikata, innuendo, hinting, semblances, inviting offerings by giving all kinds of hints

• Nippesikata, belittling, disparaging, backbiting, harassing so as to induce offerings

• Labhena labhau nijiginsabata, enticements of getting goods with goods, gain from invested money

Monks are also enjoined from using the base arts of reading signs and omens (tiracchana vikka micchajiva virati)

★ In the Vyagghapajja Sutta, economic stability and well-being comes by way of:

• Utthana sampada, production of wealth through skilled and earnest endeavor.

• Arakkha sampada, its protection and savings.

• Samajivikata, living within one's means, balanced livelihood

As with sila, this is not simply moralizing. Right Livelihood frees the disciple from distraction, remorse, regret, misgivings, guilt and shame, from the kamma and consequences or ripenings (vipaka) or fruit (phala) of unwholesome action.

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6. Samma Vayama, Samyag Vyayama, Right Effort, endeavor or exertion is the cultivation of diligence and persistence to the Four Right Efforts, strivings, exertions or endeavors (Sammappadana, Samyak-pradhana), carried out without any unwillingness, with zealous energy (atapaviraya). Energy (viriya) is the mental factor (cetasika) for effort and this wants good sources of fuel or what Buddha called "wholesome nutriment." The larger problems with appetite notwithstanding, one needs a heathy appetite, just not in the sense of big appetite. The disciple needs to sustain both energy and enthusiasm. Often great energy can be obtained more simply by plugging energy leaks. A bhikkhu awakens zeal, makes effort, arouses energy, exerts his mind and strives (MN 77) to: (Wiki)

• Prevent the arising (anuppadaya) of unwholesome (akusala) thoughts or states (dhamma). 

• Set aside, abandon, discard or dispel (pahanaya) the arisen unwholesome thoughts or states. 

• Create, develop or nurture (uppadaya) the wholesome (kusala) thoughts or states (dhamma).

• Support, promote or maintain (thitiya) the arisen wholesome thoughts or states

★ Respectively, these are the Four Right Exertions or Strivings (Cattaro Sammappadhana, Prahanani) used to accomplish this: (Wiki)

• Samvara padhana, restraining the senses. Also called indriyesu guttadvarata, the faculty of guarding the "sense doors."

• Pahana padhana, abandoning or overcoming the defilements. Some of the recommended methods are: thought substitution, hiri-ottappa, diversion or redirection of attention, confrontation and investigation, and forcible suppression. This is the Removal of Distracting Thoughts, MN 20. Removal of the defilements is also referred to as effacement (sallekha)

• Bhavana padhana, cultivating or developing Seven Enlightenment Factors (Satta Bojjhanga)

• Anurakkhana padhana, preserving or maintaining concentration, vigilance, heedfulness

There is a "tirelessness in wholesome states" (appamado kusalesu dhammesu) DN 34. The unwholesome thoughts or states (akusala dhamma) are often characterized by the five Hindrances or Obstructions (Nivaranana) and the ten Defilements (Kilesa, Klesha), enumerated later. Right Effort in general is aided by the five Mental Powers (Balani) and Faculties or roots (Indriya), also enumerated later. The effort to develop wholesome thoughts or states is aided by the Seven Factors or Limbs of Enlightenment (Satta Bojjhanga), also enumerated later.

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7. Samma Sati, Samyak Smriti, Right Mindfulness, attentiveness, attention, awareness or inspection is the contemplation of and attention to the Four Foundations or Establishments of Mindfulness (Cattaro Satipatthana, Catvari-smrtyupasthana). Also called Four Frames of Reference. The word sati also means memory or recollection. The phrase "keeping in mind" may be a common link, but here it would carry the charge to not keep by clinging. Upatthana (foundations) means sustaining, establishing, upholding. This requires the energy developed in right effort: "Arise! Sit up! Train yourselves strenuously for peace of mind. This doctrine, monks, is for the energetic, strong and firm in purpose, and not for the indolent." AN iv 234. The suffix -anupassana means "contemplation of ..." (Wiki)

• Kayanupassana, activities of the body; mindfulness immersed in body (kayagata-sati)

Of special usefulness and importance is mindfulness of breathing (anapana-sati, anapanasmriti) which does not involve control of the breath. The discipline continues through the four "usual" postures (iriyapatha): standing (caram), walking (nissino va), sitting (sayano) and lying down (yavata), all of which are suitable for mindfulness meditation, assuming no sloth or sleepiness. After this is prescribed contemplation of various repulsive aspects of corporeality and meditation on the material elements as they enter and leave experience.

• Vedananupassana, feelings or sensations, "affective tone or hedonic quality of experience" (B. Bodhi). Observing where it tries to go from contact (phassa) onward through the chain of conditioned arising, learning not-grasping or clinging. Vedana is simpler and more basic than emotion with it's overlays of value, volition, etc. Vedayita is feeling what is felt, as it comes and goes, the mindfulness of feeling.

• Cittanupassana, activities of the mind, mental processes, including thoughts associated with passions, and the processes that produce craving and aversion. See Mind in Glossary, especially citta and cetasika. All states are to be recognized as anicca, dukkha and anatta and observed in relation to their involvement in craving, aversion and delusion (lobha, dosa and moha).

• Dhammanupassana, objects of thought, mind-objects, thoughts, phenomena. The Five Hindrances (Nivarana), the Five Aggregates of Clinging, the Six Sense Bases, the Seven Enlightenment Factors and the Four Noble Truths are specifically suggested as subjects for examination.

One "abides contemplating ___ as ___, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having removed coveting and worrying in regard to the world." Meditation on the plusses and minuses and the comings and goings.

"And what is right mindfulness? There is the case where a monk remains focused on the body in & of itself — ardent, alert, & mindful — putting aside greed & distress with reference to the world. He remains focused on feelings in & of themselves... the mind in & of itself... mental qualities in & of themselves — ardent, alert, & mindful — putting aside greed & distress with reference to the world. This is called right mindfulness...This is the direct path for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow & lamentation, for the disappearance of pain & distress, for the attainment of the right method and for the realization of Unbinding — in other words, the four frames of reference." DN 22. Diligent, ardent, and resolute abiding. 

"The state of mind in meditation is one of sufficient attention, relaxed alertness, presence, an unattached involvement or observation, un-interpretive, non-judgmental, a readiness to observe what comes and goes. While we mind or attend the various objects of mindfulness, we merely notice them as they come and go, like frames in a film, "not allowing them to stimulate the mind into thought-chains of reactions to them." (Goleman p. 9)

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8. Samma Samadhi, Samyak Samadhi, Right Concentration or Absorption. Mental concentration or concentrative absorption. The mind is fixed here on a single object. This is called one-pointedness of mind (cittekeggata). Just about any state can be the object of concentration, especially in insight meditation (vipassana), but of particular importance are the expansive states (paradoxically, since the work is one-pointed concentration). Regardless of the object, the initial stage is called preliminary concentration (parikkamma-samadhi) and the object is the preliminary sign (parikkamma-nimitta). The approach to absorption is called neighborhood concentration (upacara samadhi) being on the threshold, still examining, not yet one-pointed. Full absorptiom is called appana samadhi (Wiki)

★ Jhanas are states of concentration wherein the mind is absorbed in its object. Throughout the doctrine, Jhana meditation proceeds through four levels or stages of Meditative Absorption or trance (Jhana, Dhyana). They are often called the Four Fine-Material Absorptions (Jhanas, Dhyanas) (Rupa Jhanas). They are epistemic realities, not metaphysical ones, and training grounds for the development of insight. These four are progressive, as are the four still-more-mystical states to follow (Wiki)

• Patthamajhana samadhi (concentration on the First Jhana):

Secluded from the sense desires and unwholesome states (nivarana)

Accompanied by applied thought and examination (vitakka-vicara, vitarka-vichara)

Filled with exhilaration (piti) and happiness (sukha) born of detachment (viveka)

With ekaggata (one-pointedness of mind)

• Dutiyajjhana samadhi (concentration on the Second Jhana):

Detached from applied and sustained thought (vitakka-vicara)

Filled with exhilaration and happiness (piti and sukha) born of concentration (samadhi)

With internal confidence (ajjhattai sampasadanai) and mental one-pointedness (cetaso ekodibhavai)

• Tatiyajjhana samadhi (concentration on the Third Jhana):

Abiding beyond pleasure and pain in rapture and joy

Still with happiness (sukha) but piti is now surmounted

Abiding in equanimity (upekkha) 

With mindfulness (sati) and clear comprehension (sampajanna) 

 • Cututthajjhana samadhi (concentration on the Fourth Jhana):

Abiding beyond rapture and joy in mindful equanimity

With the abandoning of happiness (sukha) and pain

And the previous disappearance of piti and grief

With purified mind consciousness (parisuddha manovinnana) due to equanimity (upekkha)

★ There are Five Mental Factors mentioned and developed here, which are said to counter the Five Hindrances.

• Vitakka, Vitarka, applied thought, directed thought, conceptualization, mentation

• Vicara, Vichara, examination, analysis, sustained thought, reasoning, discursive thought, allows examination from different points of view, moving reflection, movement of perspective.

• Piti, Priti, exhilaration, elation, ecstasy, rapture, joy, bliss, delight, zest, refreshment, enthusiasm. This can often be an anticipatory state as sukha, below, can refer to the relishing of states already attained.

• Sukha, Sukha, happiness, pleasantness, pleasure, ease, satisfaction, happiness, blessedness, well-being. See note at piti, above.

• Ekagatta, Ekagrata, one-pointedness of mind, singleness of preoccupation

★ Only the Fourth Jhana can be called imperturbable (anenja), but four higher pleasures do remain in the jhanas MN 66, respectively:

• Nekkhamma-sukha happiness of renunciation

• Paviveka-sukha happiness of seclusion

• Upasama-sukha happiness of peace

• Sambodha-sukha happiness of enlightenment

"I say of this kind of pleasure that it should be pursued, that it should be developed, that it should be cultivated, and that it should not be feared. MN 139

★ Beyond the four Rupa Jhanas are the four Formless or Immaterial Absorptions (Arupa jhanas, Arupa dhyanas) or Formless Realms. They are "beyond bodily sensations, without sense of resistance, without attraction to the perception of diversity." DN 9. These are not called Jhanas in the Canon but acquired the name later. Once again, these are experiences, not metaphysical worlds. As soon as they are made into entities they will try to become permanent, satisfying and yours. One may experience a sphere of infinite consciousness without having to believe that the infinite universe is conscious. (Wiki)

• Akasanancayatana, Akasana-, base, sphere or dimension of infinite or boundless space

• Vinnanacayatana, Vijnana-, base, sphere or dimension of infinite or boundless consciousness

• Akincannayatana, Akim-, base, sphere or dimension of nothingness

• Nevasannanasannayatana, Naivasamjna-, base, sphere or dimension of neither-perception-nor-non-perception; nothing perceived, nothing not perceived

★ Finally, Right Concentration is developed in two aspects of attentive concentration, meditation, mental culture (Bhavana):

• Samatha Bhavana, Shamatha (or Smathah) Bhavana, the development of tranquility, serenity or calmness and fixedness of mind or concentration. Also referred to as Unification or one-pointeness of Mind (cittekaggata, cittakagrata) (Wiki)

• Vipassana Bhavana, Vipasyana (or Vidarssana) Bhavana, the development of insight by introspection. Unblinkingly watchful. Seeing or knowing phenomena for what they are as they arise and disappear. The vision of every specific thing formed as impermanent, unsatisfactory and not-self. Seeing in an extraordinary way, analytical insight. (Wiki) (More)

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Surprise Bonus Steps. In  the Mahacattarisaka Sutta and elsewhere there are not eight but ten path factors (See AN 10.118:A v:233), ten descriptions of the nearest and farthest shore and the journey across.

9. Samma Nana, Samyak Jnana, right knowledge, comprehension, wisdom, insight. Knowledge experienced.

pubbe nivasanussati-nana remembering previous births

sattanam cutupapata-nana knowing death and rebirth of beings according to their kammas

asavakkhaya-nana knowledge of destruction or exhaustion of the defilements, taints, cankers or stains

10. Samma Vimutti, Samyak Mukti, right liberation, being completely unbound (parinibbuta) having done what had to be done. Liberation through acquired wisdom or discernment is pannavimutti.

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III. Value-Neutral Enumerated Factors

In the forty-five years of the Buddha’s teaching many lists of vices and virtues, problems and solutions, warnings and encouragements were enumerated, and perhaps registered with more rigidity than was intended. In an oral tradition mnemonics and consistency are important in carrying a teaching through the centuries. One whole section of the Sutta Pitaka is organized around the enumerated dimensions of the Dhamma. In the end they suggest that even the simple life is rich with a multitude of things to be done. Aside from the specifically encouraged and discouraged values, listed in the next two sections, there are the following general itemizations:

★ The Threefold Refuge (Tisarana, Trisharana) or the Three Jewels (Triratana, Triratna) There are three forms of wealth and refuge in the tradition: saranam gacchami … I go for refuge in the … (Wiki)

• Buddha, Buddha, The Awakened or Enlightened One

• Dhamma, Dharma, The Doctrine or Teaching

• Sangha, Sangha, The Fellowship or Community

★ The Threefold Training (Tisso-sikkha, Trishiksha) is one way to organize the the Eightfold Path. The three are known as the Sila, Citta and Panna Sampada, the moral, meditative and wisdom attainments. (Wiki)

• Sila, Shila, the moral discipline or virtuous conduct of: (Wiki)

Samma Vaca, Samyag Vak, Right Speech

Samma Kammanta, Samyak Karmanta, Right Action

Samma Ajiva, Samyag Ajiva, Right Livelihood

Sila also has the connotation of habit or regular practice. It does not have the connotation of commandment. This is ethical organization and practice for the abnormal conditions of life.

• Samadhi, Samadhi, mental concentration or concentrative absorption, the training of: (Wiki)

Samma Vayama, Samyag Vyayama, Right Effort

Samma Sati, Samyak-smriti, Right Mindfulness

Samma Samadhi, Samyak Samadhi, Right Concentration

• Panna, Prajna, wisdon, discernment, intelligence, intellectual acumen, appreciative analytical understanding; also used for common sense, ingenuity. Understanding is a little weak for a gloss, being overly tolerant, not sharp enough. Panna makes clear-cut decisions. (Wiki)

Samma Ditthi, Samyag dristhi, Right View, Understanding

Samma Sankappa, Samyak Samkalpa, Right Intention, Thought

★ Three Liberations or Gates (Vimokkha, Vimoksha). Progressing beyond the Three Marks or Characteristics of Existence (Tilakkhana, Trilakshana). (More)

• Sunnata, Sunyata, emptiness; understanding that all formations are without self, with no individuality beyond the conditions that brought them about

• Animitta, Animitta, formlessness, signlessness; understanding that all forms are impermanent and all things are transitory

• Apanihita, Apranihita, passionlessness, desirelessness; understanding that all formations are unsatisfactory, unable to attain or provide lasting happiness

★ The four kinds of Nutriment (Ahara) nourishment (MN 1:48), the grasping and rejecting, assimilating and excreting, adopting and disowning, required for maintaining oneself, needing perpetual replenishment. All beings are maintained by nutriment (aharatthitika). This can be for wholesome or unwholesome states, the wholesome fed, the unwholesome starved. (See Wisdom Pub's SN 5:46 p. 1569)

Do not ask who consumes a nutriment, but for what is the nutriment a condition. SN II 12:11

This has come to be … It's origination occurs with that as a nutriment SN II 12:31

What matters is no lust for the nutriment. "With the cessation of that nutriment, what has come to be is subject to cessation." SN II 12:31

Both the Hindrances and the Enlightenment Factors subsist in dependence on nutriment and do not subsist without nutriment. These are the Wholesome and Unwholesome States. SN V 46:I / 2:2 and 46:Vi / 51:1. See SN pp. 1907-1909, notes 84-97.

The texts offer the idea of de-nourishment to denote starving of the unwholesome and wholesome states. (More)

• Kabalikahara edible food, gross or subtle

• Phassahara contact, sense impressions or objects 

• Manosancetanahara mental volitions, intentions, basic wants, struggle and aspiration

• Vinnanahara consciousness, hunger for expanding experience

“All beings are maintained by nutriment.” DN 33; AN 10:27, 28; Khp 2

“What is nutriment? There are these four kinds of nutriment for the maintenance of beings that

already are, and for the assistance of those seeking renewal of being: they are physical food as

nutriment, gross or subtle, contact as the second, choice as the third, and consciousness as the

fourth.” SN 12:63; MN 38

★ The four sets of constituents of compound things (from and fairly central to the Abhidhamma Pitaka). This suggests that the Five Khandhas are merely the components of sentient beings, while other aspects of reality are compounded by their own sets of rules. (More) and (More)

• khandhas constitute sentient beings

• ayatanas five sensory organs and mind

• dhatus the elements which constitute rupa

• dhammas as mind-objects

★ The five Orders, Constraints or Processes (Niyamas), fivefold laws of cosmic order. (Wiki)

• Kamma niyama order of act and result, kusala and akusala acts produce related results

• Utu niyama physical order, inorganic, seasonal winds and rains, nature of heat, etc.

• Bija niyama order of germs and seeds, ontogeny, organic order, cells, genes

• Citta niyama order of mind or psychic law, mental processes

• Dhamma niyama order of the norm, laws of nature, including the Dhamma

★ The Six Sense Bases (Sadayatana, Sadayatana) . Sensory mediums, fields, spheres or bases (Ayatana, Ayatana) of cognition, or controlling faculties (bavisati indriyani) (Wiki) 

• Caksur, vision; cakkhu, eye; rupa, visible objects

• Crota, audition; sota, ear; saddha, sounds

• Ghrana, olfaction; ghana, nose; gandha, smells

• Jihva, taste; jivha, tongue; rasa, tastes

• Kaya, touch; kaya, body; kayindriya, proprioception, photthaba, touching

• Mano, Manas, mental functioning; mano, mind; manindriya, thought

★ The Six Elements. First, the four Great Elements (Mahabhuta, Mahabhuta). These are Primary or Underived (No-upa Rupa) elements (-dhatu). (Wiki)

• Pathavi, Priythivi, earth, solidity, hardness or softness

• Apo, Apas, water, liquidity, fluidity, cohesion, adhesion

• Tejo, Tejas, fire, heat, warmth, temperature, metabolism

• Vayo, Vayu, wind, air, oscillation, vibration, motion, expansion and contraction, voice

★ There are also two Secondary or Derived Elements (Upada Rupa)

• Akasa, Akasha, space

• Vinnana, Vijnana, consciousness, awareness, cognizance, cognition

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IV. Kusala - Wholesome Practices and States

The following lists are various collections of worthwhile practices and states attendant upon walking on the path. Some serve temporary functions until higher states are reached, but all are advocated at one time or another for one walking the path. The seeker is still warned about attachment to any of them, and of thinking that they might be the "eternal salvation of the soul," the perfect reversal of annica-dukkha-anatta. Many items are repeated in several different lists, others represented again by synonyms. It may be safe to assume for now that this repetition suggests their relative importance to the doctrine. At a minimum, these are lists of practices and states that the Buddha at least generally encouraged, even those which expressed a persistent desire for self-improvement.

★ The four Bases for Spiritual Power (Iddhipada, Riddhipada). Each of these four combines with "volitional formations of striving," mental constructs for the purpose of endeavor (padhana-sankhara), artifices to enable greater effort, striving, exertion, endeavor (padhana, a synonym for vayama)  (Wiki)

• Samadhi-chanda, Chanda, concentration with desire, zeal, intention, want or purpose

• Samadhi-viriya, Virya, concentration with energy, diligence, persiustence

• Samadhi-citta, Chitta, concentration with mind or consciousness

• Samadhi-vimamsa, Mimamsa, concentration with investigation or discrimination 

And enthusiasm (Samadhi-ussolhi) can be regarded as a fifth, making the foundation for the five kinds of direct or higher knowledge (abhinna)  see MN 16

★ The four Foundations or Higher Standings (Adhitthana), also understood as decisions or resolutions. Adhitthana, when taken as a single virtue of resolution or resolve, is one of the ten Perfections (paramitas), listed below. The words vows and avowals may also be appropriate. (Wiki)

• Pannadhitthana wisdom or discernment

• Saccadhitthana truthfulness or being true

• Cagadhitthana relinquishment or detachment

• Upasamadhitthana peace or tranquility

★ The four Sublime States or Attitudes  (Brahmaviharas), the abodes of Brahma. They represent the proper approach, attitude and conduct towards other living beings. They are also called the four Immeasurables or Boundless States (Appamanna, Apramana). (Wiki)

• Metta, Maitri, loving-kindness, love, goodwill, friendship, fraternal love, bestowing happiness, amity, or benevolence, without desire to possess. To know the good in others. (Wiki)

• Karuna, Karuna, compassion, sympathy or mercy, gentle affection, aspiration to be truly helpful. With eyes and ears open to the cries (Guan Yin in Chinese). Not simply pity or sentimentality, a bleeding heart or fellow suffering, but willing to bear the pain of others and not turn away, shut down or flee. (Wiki) 

• Mudita, Mudita, appreciative, altruistic, sympathetic or empathetic joy, gladness or joy in another's success, well-being or happiness; rejoicing in another's skillful action, merits and attainments. The complement to karuna. (Wiki)

• Upekkha, Upeksa, equanimity, dispassion, detachment, serenity, impartiality, tolerance, evenness, equipoise, balance of mind, even-mindedness, onlooking (not the same as apathy or indifference). To understand that problems must work themselves out, and that sentient beings must work themselves out of their own problems. (Wiki)

★ The Five Mental Powers or Strengths (Panca Balani) or the Five Faculties (controlling principles or roots) (Panc' Indriyani). For Panca Balani see (Wiki) and (More)

• Saddha, Saddhindriya, Shraddhabala, faith, conviction or confidence, certitude, reverence, respect, overcoming doubt. This does not mean the dismissal of the necessary empirical verification in Buddhism, merely the assurance that something is known to be effective against problems at hand. (Wiki)

• Viriya, Viriyindriya, Viryabala, energy, diligence, vigor, effort, zeal, persistence, exertion, perseverance, overcoming remissness. (Wiki)

• Sati, Satindriya, Smrtribala, mindfulness, attentive recollection, awareness. (Wiki)

• Samadhi, Samadhindriya, Samadhibala, mental concentration or concentrative absorption, focus, vigilance, concern, overcoming wandering mind. (Wiki)

• Panna, Pannindriya, Prajnabala, wisdom, comprehension, discernment, overcoming ignorance. (Wiki)

It is important that faith and wisdom balance each other. The same is true for energy and concentration. AN 7.6:A iv:5 drops energy or diligence (viriya) from this list and adds listening or learning (suta) and generosity (dana) to make up the seven Treasures (Dhanas). There is also a list of 22 Faculties, not shared here. (Wiki).

★ The seven Qualities or Attributes of Virtuous people (Satta Saddhammas), the practical conduct (carana) of good people.

• Saddha, Sraddha, faith, conviction or confidence, overcoming doubt.

• Sati, Smriti, mindfulness, attentive recollection, awareness, overcoming falsity.

• Hiri, Hri, moral shame, disgust with evil; dominated by self-respect, dignity, conscience. (Wiki)

• Ottappa, Apatrapya, ethical wariness, moral dread, fear of wrongdoing, regard for consequence, prudence, decorum, propriety, concern. (Wiki)

• Bahusacca, Bahusmrti, erudition, sagacity, learnedness, great learning (elsewhere called bahusutta, bahusutta, and simply suta or learned).

• Viriya, Virya, energy, diligence vigor, effort, zeal, persistence, perseverance, exertion, overcoming remissness (elsewhere called araddhaviriya).

• Panna, Prajna, (transcendental) wisdom, discrimination, discernment, intelligence, intellectual acumen (abhinna), appreciative analytical understanding; (elsewhere called upatthitassati)

★ Mahayana Buddhism adds a few more to this list from among its Eleven Wholesome or Virtuous States (Ekadasa kusala) 

• Prasrabdhi, Kammanata, flexibility, pliancy, suppleness, adaptability

• Apramada, Appamada, heedfulness, diligence, conscientiousness, care

• Advesa, Adosa, nonaggression, non-malevolence, non-antipathy

• And the negatives of greed, delusion and violence: Alobha, Amoha, Avihimsa

★ Seven Factors or Limbs of Enlightenment (Satta Bojjhanga, Sapta Bodhyanga) "which are supported by seclusion, dispassion and cessation and ripen in relinquishment." Several of these states are shared with the Eleven Supporting Conditions, below. (Wiki)

• Sati, Smriti, mindfulness, attentive recollection, inspection, awareness samma sati

• Dhammavicaya, Dharmapravicaya or Dharmavicharana, investigation of states or mental phenomena, discrimination of entities regarding their intrinsic value, scrutiny of the dhamma, distinguishing, examination of the arising, existing (still in a state of continuous change) and ceasing of dhammas (uppada, thiti, bhanga). (Wiki)

• Viriya, Virya, energy (activated by investigation), exertion, assiduous striving, , samma vayama. Calling for initial enthusiasm, perseverance and indominability or invincability.

• Piti, Priti, exhilaration, elation, ecstasy, rapture, joy, bliss, delight, zest, refreshment, enthusiasm. See Pleasant Staes, below for five levels. (Wiki)

• Passaddhi, Prasada or Prasrabdhi, tranquility, calm or relaxation, absence of strain, rest, release of tension, arising from enthusiasm, confidence, brightness, serenity of mind. (Wiki)

• Samadhi, Samadhi, mental concentration or concentrative absorption, samma samadhi

• Upekkha, Upeksha, equanimity, dispassion, detachment, serenity, impartiality, tolerance, evenness, even-mindedness, onlooking. The word has a sense of not taking notice, disregard, apathy.

★ The ten Perfections (Paramitas, Parimitas). (Wiki)

• Dana, Dana, generosity, liberality, giving of oneself; charity, offering, alms, gifts. (Wiki)

• Sila, Shila, ethicality, morality, virtue, discipline, proper conduct, observance of precepts. (Wiki)

• Nekkhamma, Nishkama, renunciation, turning from pleasure involvement., relinquishment, blowing ballast, nekkhama-sankappo in 2nd truth. (Wiki)

• Panna, Prajna, (transcendental) wisdom, discrimination, discernment. Skillful, refined, blameless mental quality. Learned through observing, evaluating, correcting, improving. To foster appropriate attention SN 48:10. (Wiki)

• Viriya, Virya, energy, diligence, vigor, effort, zeal, persistence, perseverance, exertion, overcoming remissness. (Wiki)

• Khanti, Kshanti, patience, tolerance, forbearance, acceptance, acquiescence, endurance, Also means choice. Forgiveness is not the best gloss for this: what we usually mean with this word  is best represented by khamanasila, khama or titikkha. (Wiki)

• Sacca, Satya, truthfulness, honesty, straightforwardness, being true. (Wiki)

• Adhitthana, Pranidhana, resolution, resolve, determination, aspiration. (Wiki)

• Metta, Maitri, loving-kindness, love, goodwill, friendship, fraternal love, bestowing happiness, amity, or benevolence, without desire to possess. (Wiki)

• Upekkha, Upeksa, equanimity, dispassion, detachment, serenity, impartiality, tolerance, evenness, even-mindedness, onlooking (not apathy). (Wiki)

★ Mahayana Buddhism offers a set of Six Perfections (Paramitas, Parimitas) with similarities to the above. (Wiki)

• Dana, Dana, generosity, liberality, giving of oneself; charity, offering, alms, gifts

• Sila, Sila, ethicality, morality, virtue, discipline, proper conduct, observance of precepts

• Ksanti, Khanti, patience, tolerance, forbearance, acceptance, endurance

• Virya, Viriya, energy, diligence, vigor, effort, zeal, persistence, perseverance, exertion, overcoming remissness

• Dhyana, Jhana, contemplation, one-pointed concentration

• Prajna, Panna, (transcendental) wisdom, discrimination, discernment

★ Four more are added to make up the Ten Stages (Dasabhumika)

• Upaya, Upaya, skillful or right means or method; attracted engagement, which elsewhere carries the negative connotation of attachment or involvement.

• Pranidhana, Adhitthana, vow, resolution, aspiration, determination

• Bala, Bala, spiritual power, strength, the effective expression of faculties (indriya)

• Jnana, Nana, knowledge, comprehension, wisdom, insight. Knowledge experienced. (Wiki)

There is also a list of twenty-two "beautiful mental functions" (Sobhana cetasikas)  itemized below in the Glossary at Cetasikas.

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V. Akusala - Unwholesome Processes and States

    The following lists are various collections of unwholesome processes and states that threaten the seeker's progress on the path. Some may yet come to serve wholesome ends - as in all of Buddhism the proper examination of things in their context is the priority. As in the preceding, many items are repeated in several different lists, others represented again by synonyms. Again, we can assume for now that this repetition suggests their relative importance to the doctrine. Generally speaking these are lists of practices and states that the Buddha discouraged.

★ The three Conceits (Mana) or Obsessions or Graspings (Gaha, Graha) the three conceits of I Am (asmi-mana). These are related to Identity or Personality Views (Sakkayaditthi), one of the Ten Fetters, and attachment to self (Attavadupadana), one of the Four Kinds of Clinging, grasping or holding. (More)

• Mamankara, mine-making, craving, mine

• Ahankara, Ahamkara, I-making, conceit, I am, empirical egoism

• Sakkayaditthi, identity or personality views, self-views, my self, individuality

★ These will condition the misguided views that:

• Etam mama this is mine, idea of possession, arises through craving

• Eho 'ham asmi I am this, the idea of identity, arises through conceit

• Esso me atta this is my self, the idea of reification, arises through view

It may be said of all forms, feelings, perceptions and mental formations, and of consciousness, of all Khandas:  N'etam mama, n'eso'ham asmi, na me so atta, "This is not mine, I am not this, this is not my self." Where this is a practice in meditation, where this is said of mind-objects, it somewhat parallels the Vedic "Not this, Not this" (Neti, Neti). This teaching is also an answer to the Vedic "I am That" (eso 'ham asmi, the 1st person Pali of the Sanskrit tat tvam asi, That Thou Art). Right view confers freedom from microcosmic self (Jivatma) and macrocosmic self (Paramatma). Conceit (mana) does not simply refer to overestimation (adhimana), excessive conceit or conceitedness, but to all levels of self-evaluation: I am superior (Seyyo ’ham asmi), I am inferior (Hino ’ham asmi) and We are equalSadiso (’ham asmi).

★ The four Taints or Corruptions (Asavas, Asravas), mental effluents, pollutants, defilements, taints, cankers or stains. These also appear with the suffix forms for Flood (-ogha) or Bond (-yogha) (Wiki)

• Kamasava, taints of sense, addictions to senses, lust, longing

• Bhavasava, taints of being and becoming, lust for life, existence infatuation

• Ditthasava, taints of view, speculative mentality, false view, wrong belief

• Avijjasava, taints of ignorance, unawareness, nescience, blindness, delusion (moha)

The knowledge of the ending or destruction of the taints is asavanam khayanana

★ The four types of Clinging (Upadana, Upadana), grasping, holding or attachment. This also carries the meaning of intake or uptake, as of fuel, like oil for a lamp, or nutriment, for good or ill. It is adding to your weight or gravitas. (Wiki)

• Kamupadana, clinging to senses, craving worldly things

• Ditthupadana, clinging to wrong views, opinions, beliefs, or philosophies

• Silabbatupadana, clinging to rules and rituals; wrong practice, believing these things "will take you there."

• Attavadupadana, clinging to self-doctrine, personal identification, ideas of selfhood

★ The four Bodily Ties or Bonds (Kayaganthas). These four are also found among the Akusala Cetasikas. (More)

• Abhijja kayagantha, Abhidya, craving, greed, covetousness

• Vyapada, Vairiam, (or Byapada) kayagantha, aversion, ill will, animosity, malice, anger, hatred, malevolence, hostility, resistance, irritation

• Silabatta paramasa katyagantha, clinging to rules and rituals; wrong practice. Insecurity.

• Idam-saccabhinivesa kayagantha, dogmatism, adherence, insistence

★ The five Hindrances (Nivarana, Nivarana), or obstructions, especially to Right Effort (Samma Vayama) and to Right Mindfulness (Samma Sati) or to meditation in general. Sometimes ignorance (avijja) is added as a sixth Hindrance. (Wiki)

• Kamacchanda, Kamachanda, (sometimes Abhijja, Abhidya) sensual desire, covetousness, craving or seeking pleasure. (More)

• Vyapada (or Byapada), Vairam or Dvesha (dosa), aversion, ill-will, animosity, malice, anger, hatred, malevolence, hostility, resistance, irritation. Synonyms patigha, pratigha, dosa, dvesha

• Thina-middha, Styana-middha, sloth, lethargy, dullness, laxity, laziness, indolence and mental torpor, drowsiness, fading out, sluggishness. Generally mental inertia.

• Uddhacca-kukkucca, Auddhatya-kaukritya, restlessness, distractedness, agitation, excitement, ebullience, frivolity, flurry; and remorse, regret, worry, anxiety, fretfulness, compunction, or brooding. Generally disquietude.

• Vicikiccha, Vichikitsa, skeptical doubt, uncertainty, indecision, perplexity, lack of conviction or trust. This does not refer to critical or discriminating intelligence, which is encouraged in Buddhism.

The five hindrances are overcome respectively by one-pointedness (ekaggata), exhilaration (piti), applied thought, (vitakka), happiness (sukha) and sustained thought (vicara).

★ The seven Latent Tendencies (Anusayas, Anushayas), underlying or inherent dispositions, conditioning, proclivities, tendencies, obsessions; unconscious mind, dormant mental impurities; inclinations (as potential energy). Creatures from the id. Some of these are shared with the fetters (saṃyojanas), just below. (Wiki) and  (More)

• Kamaraga or Kamatanha, Kamaraga, sensual passion, desire, thirst, lust, greed, attachment, unskillful desire.

• Paṭigha, Pratigha, aversion, anger, hostile attitude, repugnance, resistance, aggressive urges

• Ditthi, Drishti, Ditthi, Drishti, view, point of view, perspective. outlook, opinion, belief, understanding. The default value of this word is negative: misinterpretation, prejudice, prejudgment, speculative views, dogma (or Micchadithi, wrong views, misunderstanding)

• Vicikiccha, Vicikitsa, skeptical doubt, uncertainty, indecision, lack of conviction or trust

• Mana, Mana, conceit, pride, vanity, intrusion of ego, self-evaluation, social comparison, arrogance. The term applies to low self-esteem as well. (Wiki)

• Bhavaraga or Bhavatanha, Bhavaraga, craving or desire to be and be more, egoistic urges, the rage to be 

• Avijja, Avidya, ignorance, nescience, unawareness, not knowing, blindness, delusion, misunderstanding.

★ The ten Fetters (Samyojanas Sannojanas), bonds or attachments, tying beings to the wheel of existence (samsara) and the cycle of rebirth. (Wiki) and (More)

• Sakkayaditthi, Satkayadrishti, identity or personality views or belief, self-illusion, identification of any kkanda with self. See the three Conceits (Mana) Obsessions or Graspings (Gaha) above

• Vicikiccha, Vicikitsa, skeptical doubt, uncertainty, indecision, lack of conviction or trust; not the same as investigating with discernment and a readiness to dismiss bad ideas.

• Silabbataparamaso, Silavrataparimarsa, the belief, attachment or wrong grasp in precepts and rules, rituals, habits, practices, ceremonial observances; belief that these will transport you

One who has succeeded in eradicating these first three fetters is regarded a Stream-enterer or Stream-winner (sotapanna, srotapanna).  (Wiki) The next seven:

• Kamaraga, or Kamacchando, Kamaraga, sensual thirst, passion, desire, lust, greed, attachment, unskillful desire

• Vyapada (or Byapada), Vairam or Dvesha (dosa), aversion, ill will, animosity, malice, anger, hatred, malevolence, hostility, resistance, irritation. Synonyms patigha, pratigha, dosa, dvesha

• Rupa-raga, Ruparaga,  craving or passion for substance and form, rebirth on material planes

• Arupa-raga, Aruparaga, craving or passion for the insubstantial, immaterial or formless phenomena, rebirth in higher realms

• Mana, Mana, conceit, pride, vanity, intrusion of ego, self-evaluation, social comparison, arrogance. The term applies to low self-esteem as well.

• Uddhacca, Auddhatya, restlessness, distractedness, agitation, excitement, ebullience, frivolity, flurry 

• Avijja, Avidya, ignorance, nescience, unawareness, not knowing, blindness, delusion, misunderstanding.

★ Elsewhere, in the Abhidhamma Pitaka, additional fetters are mentioned while some of the above are omitted, such as:

• Ditthi, Drishti, view, point of view, perspective. outlook, opinion, belief, understanding. The default value of this word is negative: misinterpretation, prejudice, prejudgment, speculative views, dogma.

• Patigha, Pratigha, anger, aversion, repugnance, revulsion, repulsion, resentment, resistance; sensory impact or impingement. This is often specifically in reaction to an intense, offensive or aggressive stimulus, maybe subsequent resentment or grudge, giving it a shade of distinction from dosa.

• Bhavaraga, Bhavaraga, passion of becoming, lust for existence, desire for becoming and rebirth

• Issa, Irshya, jealousy, envy

• Macchariya, Matsarya, stinginess, avarice, miserliness, selfishness

There are chains by which these fetters arise, as at DN 21: jealousy and avarice (issa-macchariya) arise from dear and not-dear (piya-appiya), this from desire (chanda), this from thinking (vitakka), this from proliferation (papanca)

★ The ten Defilements (Kilesa, Klesha), impurities, passions, imperfections, corruptions, troubles, beginning with the three poisons (tivisa, trivisa). (Wiki)

• Lobha, Lobha, or Raga, Raga, craving, covetousness, thirst, desire, passion, lust, greed, attachment, unskillful desire, self-centered desire for more.

• Dosa, Dvesha, aversion, hatred, anger, aggression, fear of getting what we don't want or not getting what we want, avoidance, rejection, a will to be separate, from unwise contemplation of repulsive objects. Covers a wide range of hostile feelings. Synonyms vyapada and patigha.

• Moha, Moha, delusion, mental dullness or darkness, infatuation, stupidity, bewilderment, confusion, ignorance, folly, sentimentality.

• Mana, Mana, conceit, pride, vanity, intrusion of ego, self-evaluation, social comparison, arrogance. The term applies to low self-esteem as well.

• Ditthi, Drishti, view, point of view, perspective. outlook, opinion, belief, understanding. The default value of this word is negative: misinterpretation, prejudice, prejudgment, speculative views, dogma (or micchadithi, wrong views, misunderstanding)

• Vicikiccha, Vicikitsa, skeptical doubt, uncertainty, indecision, lack of conviction or trust (Wiki)

• Thina, Styana, sloth, lethargy, dullness, laxity, laziness, mental torpor

• Uddhacca, Auddhatya, restlessness, distractedness, agitation, excitement, ebullience, flurry 

• Ahirika, Ahrykya, shamelessness, lack of conscience or moral shame. (Wiki)

• Anottappa, Anapatrapya, unconscientiousness, recklessness, disregard for consequence, moral carelessness. (Wiki)

★ Mahayana adds more to the list:

• Krodha, Kodha, anger, fury, rage  (that prepares to do harm) 

• Upanaha, Upanaha, resentment, vengefulness, rancor, witholding forgiveness, intending to harm

• Mraksa, Makkha, concealment, slyness, hypocrisy; contempt, denigration

• Pradasa, Palasa, malice, spite, spitefulness; domineering

• Matsarya, Macchariya, stinginess, avarice, miserliness, selfishness

• Sathya, Satheyya, dishonesty, hypocrisy, crookedness

• Himsa, Vihimsa, harmfulness, cruelty, malice, intent to harm, violence

★ Ten Unwholesome or Disadvantageous Courses of Action (Akusala Kammapatha)

Three of Bodily Action (kayakamma)

• Panatipata destruction life, injuring or killing living beings

• Adinnadana taking what is not given, stealing

• Kamesu-micchacara misconduct in sensual pleasures

Four of Verbal Action (vacikamma)

• Musavada lying, deceit, speaking falsehood, false or incorrect talk or speech

• Pisunavaca tale bearing, slander, backbiting, calumny, malicious, divisive talk or speech

• Pharusavaca harsh, abusive, impolite, hurtful, insulting, sarcastic, offensive talk or speech

• Samphappalapa gossip, useless, frivolous, pointless, fruitless, senseless, shallow, silly, vain, idle talk or speech, chatter and foolish babble 

Three of Mental action (manokamma)

• Abhijja craving, greed, covetousness

• Vyapada, Vairiam (or Byapada), aversion, ill will, animosity, malice, anger, hatred, malevolence, hostility, resistance, irritation

• Micchaditthi, Mithyadrishti, wrong views, misbelief, misunderstanding

★ Eleven Mental Imperfections or Corruptions (Cittassa Upakkilesa, Upaklesa) MN 128. (Wiki)

• Vicikiccha, Vichikitsa, skeptical doubt, uncertainty, indecision, lack of conviction or trust

• Amanasikara, inattention, inadvertence

• Thina-Middha, Styana-middha, sloth, lethargy, dullness, laxity, laziness and mental torpor, drowsiness, fading out, sluggishness

• Chambhitatta, fear, trepidation

• Ubbilla, elation or excitement

• Dutthulla, inertia or inaction

• Accaraddha viriya, excessive effort or excess of energy

• Atilina viriya, weak effort or deficiency of energy

• Abhijappa, longing or desire

• Nanatta sanna, perception of diversity

• Atinijjhayitattam rupanam, excessive meditation upon forms

★ Sixteen Mental Imperfections or Corruptions (Cittassa Upakkilesa, Upaklesa) MN 3, 7.3, 9.15. A list of unwholesome mental factors (akusala cetasikas) in the Abidhamma tradition is given at Cetasikas, Caitasikas, in the next section. (Wiki)

• Abhijjha-visamalobha, covetousness and unrighteous greed

• Vyapada, Vairiam (or Byapada), aversion, ill will, animosity, malice, anger, hatred, malevolence, hostility, resistance, irritation. Synonyms patigha, pratigha, dosa, dvesha

• Kodha, Krodha, anger, fury, rage (that prepares to do harm). (Wiki)

• Upanaha, Upanaha, resentment, vengefulness, rancor, witholding forgiveness, intending to harm. (Wiki)

• Makkha, Mraksa, concealment, slyness, hypocrisy; contempt, denigration

• Palasa, Pradasa, malice, spite, spitefulness; domineering

• Issa, Irshya, jealousy, envy, not enduring the prosperity of others

• Macchariya, Matsarya, stinginess, selfishness, avarice

• Maya, Maya, pretense, deceit, hypocrisy, illusion

• Satheyya, Sathya, fraud, craftiness

• Thambha, obstinacy, obduracy, stubbornness

• Sarambha, presumption, impetuousness, precipitousness, rashness

• Mana, Mana, conceit, pride, vanity, intrusion of ego, self-evaluation, social comparison, arrogance. The term applies to low self-esteem as well.

• Atimana, Atimana, arrogance, extreme self-regard

• Mada, Mada, pride, vanity, intoxication

• Pamada, Pramada, heedlessness, carelessness, unconcern, negligence

★ Others from Mahayana

• Styana, Thina, sloth, lethargy, dullness, laxity, laziness

• Auddhatya, Uddhacca, restlessness, distractedness, agitation, excitement, ebullience, flurry  

• Asraddhya, Assadha, lack of faith, lack of trust

• Kausidya, Kosajja, laziness, slothfulness

• Musitasmrtita, Mutthasacca, forgetfulness, absence of mindfulness

• Asamprajanya, Avivekita (or Vicarahinata), inattentiveness, disregard, thoughtlessness

• Vikshepa, Vikkhepa, distraction, confusion, desultoriness

• Kaukritya, Kukkucca, remorse, regret, worry, anxiety, fretfulness, compunction, or brooding

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VI. Glossary of Terms in Categories

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Arising and Passing Away (Anicca) 

Attachment (Upadana)

Aversion, Ill Will and Denial (Vyapada or Byapada)

Concentration (Samadhi)

Conduct (Kammanta, Sila)

Craving, Desire and Addiction (Tanha)

Detachment and Equanimity (Upekkha)

Effort (Vayama) and Energy (Viriya)

Identity and Existence (Atta)

Intention (Sankappa)

Investigation (Vicaya)

Mindfulness (Sati)

Mind and Consciousness (Citta, Mano, Vinnana)

Mind Functions (Cetasikas, Caitasikas)

People on the Path (Patthetu)

Pleasant States (Sukkha, Kusala)

Reality and Illusion (Yathabhuta, Maya)

Rebirth (Punabhava)

Unpleasant States (Dukkha, Akusala)

View (Ditthi, Drishti)

Worlds (Loka, Loka)

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Arising and Passing Away (Anicca) 

Four states are represented in this category: being conditioned, arising, existing and passing away.

abhinibbatti to become, be reproduced, to result

abhisankhata conditioned

anabhava obliteration 

anantara paccaya proximate cause

antaradhana disappearance

aparisesa nirujjhanti ceasing without remainder 

atthangama annihilation, disappearance, passing away, setting down; opposite samudaya, coming into existtence 

bhanga dissolution, apparent solidity arising and passing away, moment of cessation

cuti passing away, vanishing, expiration, death

hetu cause, origin, reason

hetu-phala cause and effect, root and fruit

hetu, paccaya, phala causes, conditions and effects

idappaccayata specific conditionality, cause related to effect, as in science

mula root, source, origin, condition, cause

nicca, nitya, constant, perpetual, permanent

nijjara attrition, wearing away

nirodha, nirodha cessation, eradication, extinction, disbanding, stopping, destruction, dissolution

nissita dependent 

pabhava production, origin, source

pabhavika arising from

paccapatthana manifestation

paccaya cause, condition, requisite, relation

padatthanam, proximate cause

paloka disintegration

parihana decline

parinibburto extinguished 

pariyadana exhaustion

purecarika precursor 

sammosa decay

samudaya coming into existence, arising; cause, origin

sankhata, samskrita formed, conditioned as sankharas

thiti stability, maintenance, continuation, perpetuation

udayabbaya  rise and fall 

udaya-vaya arising and passing away

upadaya derived from, clinging to

uppada, thiti, bhanga arising, existence or presence and ceasing 

uppada khana, titthi khana, bhanga khana arising, present and dissolution moments

uppajjanti arise 

uppanna arisen 

vaya vanishing, going, passing away

vippayutta-paccaya dissociation-condition 

vupasama, subsiding

vutthana rising up, emergence 

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Attachment (Upadana)

ajjhosana holding, see craving

alaya adhesion, attachment, indulgence

anurodha virodha likes and dislikes

anurodhavirodham sampanno attachment and resentment, attraction and repulsion

avisana obsession, seizure

bandha bond

bandhana bondage

gaha seizure, grip

nikanti attachment, attraction

pariggaha possession

parimasa grasping

paritassana connotes both fear or worry and craving or grasping, agitation, uddhacca

pariyutthana obsession

raganusaya patighanusaya greed and hatred

rati delight, attachment 

saraga attachment, infatuation

sarajjati byapajjati attraction and repulsion

upadana, upadana, clinging, grasping, holding or attachment; intake or uptake, as of fuel, like oil for a lamp, or nutriment, for good or ill. Adding to your weight or gravitas.

upadhi, attachments, objects of attachment; also substrate, basis, ground, essentials of existence

upaya, upaya, one of the Paramitas of Mahayana, skillful or right means or method; attracted engagement, which elsewhere carries the negative connotation of attachment or involvement.

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Aversion, Ill Will and Denial (Vyapada or Byapada)

analaya aversion, free of attachment

anurodhapativirodha, attraction and aversion, favoring and opposing 

appiyatta resentment, invidiousness, envy

arati, distaste, dislike, aversion, boredom, discontent

asahana resentment, non-endurance, intolerance

dosa, dvesha, aversion, hatred, anger, aggression, fear of getting what we don't want or not getting what we want, avoidance, rejection, a will to be separate, from unwise contemplation of repulsive objects. Covers a wide range of hostile feelings. Synonyms vyapada and patigha.

dukkhapaṭikula avoidance of suffering

nibbida disenchantment, weariness and disgust

paccakkhana, contradiction, disavowal, renouncement, repudiation, rejection

parammukhata aversion

patigha, pratigha, anger, aversion, repugnance, revulsion, repulsion, resentment, resistance; sensory impact  or impingement. This is often specifically in reaction to an intense, offensive or aggressive stimulus, maybe subsequent resentment or grudge, giving it a shade of distinction from dosa.

paṭikkhepa, pratigha, denigration, impugnment, refusal, objection, negation

upanaha, upanaha, resentment, vengefulness, rancor, witholding forgiveness, intending to harm

vimukhata reluctance

viraga absence of passion, dispassion, disinterestedness

vyapada, vairam,  (or byapada)  aversion, ill will, animosity, malice, anger, malevolence, hatred,  hostility,  resistance, irritation. 

Some versions of negative response are used positively:

asubha unattractiveness, loathsomeness, foulness, ugliness. This is often used as a meditation to break the spells of kamaraga.

nibbida, nirvedh, disenchantment, weariness, dispassion - frequently to be cultivated without the aversion,  revulsion and disgust connotations

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Concentration (Samadhi)

appana absorption concentration

avikheppo non-distraction

bhavana meditation, attentive concentration, includes samatha and vipassana, mental culture, making-to-become, self-development, mental development

ekaggata, ekagrata, unification, oneness of mind and object (jhana, dhyana)

ekaggatta-rammana one-pointedness of mind, concentration, singleness of preoccupation, focus

kasina objects of meditation or meditation device, field 

nimitta, image, vision, mental sign arising in meditation, mark or sign taken up

samadhi, samadhi, mental concentration, concentrative absorption. 

samapatti meditative attainment, sustained deep absorption

samyama binding, holding together, fixation http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samyama

upacara samadhi, access concentration, the stage before jhana

upacara, access 

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Conduct (Kammanta, Sila)

accaya transgression 

adhamma injustice, unrighteous conduct

apatti desana confession of wrongdoing, infractions, offenses or faults

atthacariya wise conduct, also good counsel

carana by default usually implies good conduct or good behavior

carita, character, behavior

duccarita misconduct, misbehavior

sucarita good conduct

caritta performance, practice, observance

dhamma-vinaya doctrine and discipline, Buddha's name for Buddhism

hiri-ottappa negative conscience, avoidance of shame and censure

hiriyati scruples

kamesu micchacara sensual/sexual misconduct

micchacara misconduct 

micchata wrongness

pakati, prakriti nature, behaviorally normal, without crisis, natural, a default state of affairs, inherent morality

paccha, pasca, contrition, repentance, remorse

panatipata destruction of life, injuring or killing living beings

pamada, pramada heedlessness, carelessness, unconcern, negligence. Intoxicants that lead to this blunt the senses of hiri and ottappa, moral shame and dread (AN 2.31-2)

papasila wicked or evil behavior

parajika defeat. There are four rules that lead to expulsion from the Sangha for life, against sexual conduct, theft, murder and boasting of supernatural powers

punna, punya, worth, good character, meritorious deeds, well-being from right action

samacara conduct, behavior

samyama self-control, restraint, temperance, moderation

sativepullappatta having attained a clear conscience

sila virtue, virtuous behavior; vuddhasila mature virtue

silabatta rules and vows

sucarita good conduct

varitta avoidance, restraint

veyyavacca service, rendering help

vijja-carana knowledge and conduct 

vippatisara bad conscience, regret, repentance

vivekabuddhi conscience, sense of discrimination

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Craving, Desire and Addiction (Tanha)

abhijja, abhidya, craving, greed, covetousness, particularly for other's property; closest to lobha in meaning

amisa worldly or carnal happiness, the bait

anuyoga pursuit, devotion, given to

assada gratification, attraction, savor, relish, esp. of taste; apparent enjoyment, satisfaction

calamatthena tanha trembling with desire, craving with respect to the thrill

chanda usually regarded as the positive form of desire, want, will, zeal; wish to do, desire to act, see again at intention. Combined with kama as kamacchanda it becomes cravenness.

chandamulaka rooted in desire

dhammatanha craving for mind-objects, apt to overspeculate 

eja passion, stirring

iccha wish, desire, longing

kama, kama, pleasure, sensory or sensual pleasure, longing, lust. Kama can mean both sense pleasures and the desire for sense pleasure

kamachanda sensual desire, cravenness

kamaloka world, realm or plane of desire

kamaraga sensual passion

labha-sakkara-siloka gain-honor-praise 

lobha, lobha, craving, covetousness, thirst, desire, passion, lust, greed, attachment, unskillful desire, self-centered desire for more.

mahiccha discontented, not easily satisfied, having many desires

nandi delight as an aspect of tanha, opposite of revulsion nibbida

nati inclination; bending, bent

nikanti desire, craving, longing for

parilaha fever, burning passion, obscene desire, lust

paritassana connotes both fear or worry and craving or grasping, agitation, uddhacca

pariyesana quest. A diversity of quests follows a diversity of passions

patthana longing, hankering

pema, prema love and affection; as attachment: carnal love, selfish affectionate desire

raga passion desire, lust for excitement, rage

rati, abhirati delight, attachment to pleasure

saragam cittam lustful mind

tanha, trishna, desire, craving or thirst, but including the desire to be separated from noxious stimuli. The actual wanting more and wanting less.

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Detachment and Equanimity (Upekkha)

abyapada non-aversion, absence of ill will

adhivasana endurance, forbearance

adukkhamasukha neither painful nor pleasant 

alobha absence of craving, non-attachment, generosity

analaya non-desire, freedom from attachment, unattachment, unadhesion

anupada vimokkha liberation through not clinging

anupaya unattracted

appanihita wishlessness, desirelessness

arati unattachment, abstinence; can also mean distaste, revulsion

atammayata non-identification, not consisting of that; see gaha

avirodha non-resistance, non-obstruction, non-opposition, non-antagonism

cetovimutti liberation of heart and/or mind

mokkha, moksha, release, freedom, emancipation

mutti freedom

nibbida, nirvedh, disenchantment, weariness, dispassion, frequently to be cultivated without the aversion, revulsion and disgust connotations

nissarana, going out, cessation, escape, salvation, being freed

paricagga, give up, renounce; bestow, donate

patinissagga relinquishment

patisallana seclusion, solitude, retirement for contemplation

paviveka seclusion, retirement, solitude

samatikkama transcendence 

tatramajjhattata neutrality, specific neutrality, even-mindedness; distinct from indifference, larger frame, big picture

upekkha equanimity, equipoise, onlooking

vimokkha emancipation, liberation, as progressive

vimutti, mukti or vyamokh, emancipation, freedom, deliverance, salvation, release

viraga, vairagya, fading of passions, detachment, dispassion, no raga, letting go

viveka detachment, seclusion, separation, aloofness, physical and mental modes

vossagga detachment, renunciation, abandonment

yanna sacrifice, alms-giving

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Effort (Vayama) and Energy (Viriya)

ahara nutriment, nutrition

aharatthitika maintenance or perpetuation by nutriment

appativani unremittingness 

atapi, ardent

chanda, usually regarded as a more positive or value-neutral form of desire, wish to do, desire to act, want, will, purpose, zeal. Chanda appears at desire and intention as well.

dama self-control, taming, subduing 

dhiti courage, energy, steadfastness, fortitude, firm character

nikkama endeavor, exertion, strength, endurance

padhana effort, striving, exertion, endeavor (vayama); fundamental, basic, principal

padahati striving 

parakkama exertion, endeavor, effort, bravery, valor

payatana striving, effort, endeavor

samvega, negative realization, rude awakening, a chastening experience of the wrongness, futility, shallowness, meaninglessness, pointlessness, riskiness and precariousness of common life, one's prior life or phase of life. An anxious sense of urgency to find a better way. Disgust, anxiety, agitation; a religious emotion, spiritual urgency. Being moved to the core of one's being. (More)

satacca perseverance

thama fortitude

ussahati (less informed than padahana)

vayama striving, effort

viriya vigor, energy, effort, exertion, persistence

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Identity and Existence (Atta)

asmi I am

atta, atman the apparent ultimate individual or spiritual identity

attabhava individual existence, individuality, personality, selfhood

attabhava-patiabha acquisition of individuality

attanuditthi self-view 

atta-patilabha, acquired self 

attavada theory of soul, self-doctrine

ayu life, lifespan, vitality

bhava, bhava, (process of) becoming or be-ing as a verb, existence as standing out, growth for its own sake, maturation

bhuta entity, being

itthata this state of being, individual existence as such

jiva (illusion of) soul, individual soul; life, vital principle,

jivita life, life force, kinetic energy of life, vitality, coherence

jivitindriya, jivitindriya, life faculty (Wiki)

manusa human

paja generation, the whole order of beings, evolution

pana, prana living being, breathing being

puggala individual, personality, person

sakkaya person, personality, identity

santana continuity, flux, succession, offspring

santati continuity

satta, sattva, sentient beings (Wiki) 

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Intention (Sankappa)

adhimokkha, adhyavasayh or anumatra, resolution, determination, firm resolve, volition, decision, decisiveness, conviction, choice of objects of attention

adhimuccati to resolve upon, be intent on

abhinihara resolution

adhippaya purport, intention

adhitthana resolution, resolve, determination, aspiration, decision, self-determination

cetana, cetana, volition, intention, drive, inherent impulse (as opposed to external goals), act of willing

cetanabala power of volition 

chanda, usually regarded as the positive form of desire, wish to do, desire to act, want, will, purpose, zeal

kattu-kamyatachanda wish-to-do, gloss of chanda

pahitatta dedicated intention, resolution, determination

sancetana volition

sankappa, sankalpa, intention, thought, aim, commitment, purpose, aspiration, mindset, plan, motive or resolve

ussahati, willing, applying will, compare striving

votthabbana decision

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Investigation (Vicaya)

adhippayasa disparity 

-anupassana contemplation of

anvaya inference, tracing a course or sequence, following a causal chain

atappa focused investigation, ardency, ardor

atthapatisambhidha analytical insight

bhavanamayapanna wisdom from mental cultivation

dhamma-tthiti-nana knowledge of realization of states, knowledge of structure of ideas

dhammavicaya, dharmavicharana, investigation of states

esana searches, value neutral

nana, jnana knowledge, comprehension, wisdom, insight. Knowledge experienced.

nanadassana, knowledge seen; knowledge and vision

nepakka discretion, prudence

nijjhana pondering, insight

paccaya-pariggaha discernment of conditions or conditioned states

patibhana ingenuity, ready wit, promptitude, readiness

patisambhida analytical knowledge 

sammasana exploration, comprehension (esp. in terms of anicca, dukkha and anatta)

sampajanna, samprajanya, clear comprehension, discrimination, full awareness

takkavithi reasoning, using logic, can be hair-splitting or sophistry 

thana logic, reasonableness

tulana scrutiny, deliberation, weighing 

ugghatitannu swift understanding 

vicaya, vicharana, discrimination, discriminating investigation

vijja, vidya knowledge, science; true, clear and working knowledge, opposite of ignorance (avijja)

vijana, vijana knowing, understanding

vimamsa investigation, inquiry, search

vyattuccarana articulation

Seventeen Stages of Insight Knowledge (Vipassana):

• Knowledge of namarupa, distinguishing between mental and physical states (namarupa pariccheda nana)

• Knowledge of conditionality, the cause-and-effect relationship between mental and physical states (paccaya pariggaha nana)

• Knowledge of mental and physical processes as impermanent, unsatisfactory and non-self (sammasana nana)

• Knowledge of the arising and passing away (udayabbaya nana)

• Knowledge of the passing away, decay and dissolution of formations (bhanga nana)

• Knowledge of the fearsome nature of mental and physical states (bhaya nana)

• Knowledge of the danger or disadvantageous nature of mental and physical states (adinava nana)

• Knowledge of disenchantment (nibbida nana)

• Knowledge of the desire to abandon the worldly state for freedom (muncitu-kamayata nana)

• Knowledge of the need for reflection and consideration (patisankha nana)

• Knowledge of equanimity towards mental and physical states with (sankhar-upekkha nana)

• Knowledge of the insight of emergence or arising (vutthanagamini vipassana nana)

• Knowledge of adaptation or conforming to the true (anuloma nana)

• Knowledge of deliverance from the lineage of conditions (gotrabhu nana)

• Knowledge of the path to the end of the defilements (magga nana)

• Knowledge of the fruition of the path, with nibbana as object (phala nana)

• Knowledge which reviews or reflects on the remaining defilements (paccavekkhana nana)

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Mind and Consciousness (Citta, Mano, Vinnana)

Citta, Citta, the mental apprehension of ordinary consciousness, attending and collecting impressions, mindset and state of mind, attitude; that which knows or experiences an object, quality of mental processes as a whole, thought, not itself an entity or process. It is both heart and mind, with emotional and rational elements, the full experience of a conscious state, and so is cognate with the Chinese Xīn.  From the Pali word cinteti, thinking. A citta is a moment in time of mind, a state within a stream of momentary experiences. Cittas are always cognizing an object, a dhamma or object arising in the mind, accompanied by one or more of the fifty-two cetasikas, caitasikas, mental processes or functions, specialized tasks. Certain cetasikas can be fundamentally wholesome, others fundamentally unwholesome. Citta with its cetasikas, are together called nama, mentality, with the root meaning of name. (Wiki) and (Wiki)

cittavithi consciousness as an active process

citta-tthiti steadiness of consciousness

citta-sankhara mental formation

vithi-citta active consciousness

vipaka-citta resultant consciousness

kiritya-citta functional consciousness

avimutta citta unliberated mind

cittecaggata unification or one-pointedness of mind

cittakammanata fitness of the work of the mind

cittena mentally; suffix for an attitude or mentality

adhicitta higher consciousness

adhicittasikkha training higher mind

cittuppada thought, thought arising, inclination of mind, mental arising

ceto mind, heart, will

cetokhila, barrenness of heart 

cetopariya penetration of minds

bodhicitta, bodhichitta awakened mind

Mano, Manas, intellect or mind sense that grasps mental objects, the faculty of thought, mental apprehension or prehensile mind, intelligence, subject with object. (Wiki)

amanasikara, inattention, inadvertence

manasikara, manasikara, attention, advertence (Wiki)

mannana conceiving, conception

mannati to conceive, often distortional thinking, like concoct

mannita conceivings, mental fabrications, products of papanca

manomaya mind-made, "astral" body, out of body experience 

manopavicara mental exploration, applied and sustained thought

manosancetanahara mental volition as nutriment

manovinnana mind consciousness

Vinnana, Vijnana, consciousness, cognizance, cognition, awareness, conscious discrimination, as figure-groundƒ (Wiki)

vinnana sotam, vijnana srotam, stream of consciousness

samvattanika-vinnana, evolving consciousness

manovinnana, mind consciousness, consciousness with phenomena

Alayavijnanastore consciousness, containing the suchness of things, a Mahayana doctrine (Wiki)

Miscellaneous

suffix for awareness or knowledge of _____ -nana

nama in nama rupa, name, also names the four khandas that are not rupa; mental phenomena, also used as a collective term for vedana, sanna, cetana, phassa, and manasikara

sankhitta contracted mind

sampajanna, samprajanya, alertness, presence of mind, full awareness, clear comprehension

samjanana recognition, function of perception

vijanati to cognize, know, recognize

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Mindfulness (Sati)

adhimokkha, adhyavasayh or anumatra, resolution, determination, firm resolve, volition, decision, choice of objects of attention

anapanasati, anapanasmriti, breathing meditation, mindfulness of breath, without control of breath

anussati contemplation, recollection, remembrance

appamada heedfulness, diligence, conscientiousness, care, similar to sati, but also connotes diligence, non-neglect of sati, zest

asati-asampajanna non-restraint, unmindful without comprehension

assasa-passasa in-breathing and out-breathing

bhavana meditation, attentive concentration, includes samatha and vipassana, mental culture, making-to-become, self-development, mental development

cinta reflection

jagariya wakefulness, awakened state, vigilance

kammatthana subjects of meditation, working ground, starting point

kasinas contemplation devices

mutthasacca, musitasmrtita, forgetfulness, absence of mindfulness

mutthasati unmindful, forgetful, dizzy

parivitakka reflection, consideration

sati, smriti, mindfulness, attentive recollection, awareness

satima watchfulness of mind, vigilance

satipatthana attendance on, presence, awareness

sati-sampajanna clear comprehension with discernment of impermanence, mindfulness of arising and passing away

udayattagamini panna discernment of arising and passing away

yoniso manasikara careful attention, systematic attention

ayoniso manasikara is careless attention)

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Mind Functions (Cetasikas, Caitasikas) (Wiki)

Mental Factors, discernible activities of the mind, Citta vithi

★ The Seven Universal or Omnipresent cetasikas or Mental Processes (sabba citta sadharana), said to accompany all cittas, every waking state of mind.

• Phassa, Sparsha, contact, initial connection between mind and object, first notice

• Vedana, Vedana, (sukha, dukkha, somanassa, domanassa, upekkha) feeling, raw experience

• Sanna, Samjna, perception, remembrance, noting the most salient features of a sense or mental object, assignment of qualities as tags or handles

• Cetana, Cetana, volition, stimulus, motive, drive, directing, coordinating, purposiveness, default can be apperceptive inertia, gives direction to kamma

• Ekaggata, Ekagrata, one-pointedness, focus, narrowing, concentration, splitting figure from ground

• Jivitindriya, Jivitindriya, life-faculty, vitality, vital force of mental factor, psyche's liveliness

• Manasikara, Manasikara, attention, advertence, bringing to mind, reflection, linking object with mind

yoniso-manasikara deep, systematic or thoroughgoing attention MN 43 

ayoniso manasikara shallow, unsystematic reflection

★ The six Particular or Occasional (Pakinnaka) Cetasikas

• Vitakka, Vitarka, applied thought, initial thought, hitting upon, mounting the mind onto its object, thought of ___, 

• Vicara, Vichara, sustained thought, discursive thinking, continues the thought from one moment to the next, examination, contextual placement or anchoring of thought.

• Adhimokkha, Adhyavasayh or Anumatra, resolution, determination, firm resolve, volition, decision, decisiveness, conviction, choice of objects of attention

• Viriya, Virya, energy, drive, urge, urgency, charge, the function of driving, urging, charging, marshaling, supporting

• Piti, Priti, exhilaration, elation, ecstasy, rapture, joy, bliss, delight, zest, refreshment, enthusiasm

• Chanda, Chanda, desire to act, wish-to-do, zeal

★ The fourteen Unwholesome (Akusala) Cetasikas

• Moha, Moha, delusion, mental dullness or darkness, infatuation, stupidity, bewilderment, confusion, ignorance, folly, sentimentality

• Ahirika, Ahrykya, shamelessness, lack of conscience or moral shame

• Anottappa recklessness, disregard of blame, disregard of consequence

• Uddhacca restlessness, agitation, excitement, mental distraction

• Lobha, Lobha, craving, covetousness, thirst, desire, passion, lust, greed, attachment, unskillful desire, self-centered desire for more.

• Ditthi, Drishti, (wrong) view, point of view, perspective. outlook, opinion, belief, understanding. The default value of this word is negative: misinterpretation, prejudice, prejudgment, speculative views, dogma.

• Mana, Mana, conceit, pride, vanity, intrusion of ego, self-evaluation, social comparison, arrogance. The term applies to low self-esteem as well.

• Dosa, Dvesha, aversion, negative response, hatred, anger, ill will, aggression, fear of getting what we don't want or not getting what we want, avoidance, rejection, a will to be separate. Synonyms vyapada and patigha 

• Issa, Irshya, envy, jealousy, not enduring the prosperity of others, opposite mudita.

• Macchariya, Matsarya, stinginess, miserliness, avarice, concealing and hoarding, possessiveness, meanness. (Wiki)

• Kukkucca, Kaukritya, regret, remorse, worry, both of commission and omission, what ifs

• Thina, Styana, sloth, stolidity, absence of striving, lack of energy, indisposition

• Middha, Middha, torpor, languor, drowsiness, lethargy, lack of consciousness, inertia

• Vicikiccha, Vichikitsa,  doubt, indecision, uncertainty, vacillation, wavering, paralysis

★ The twenty-five Beautiful (Sobhana) Cetasikas. Three are roots (sobhana hetus): alobha, adosa and panna.

• Saddha, Sraddha, confidence, faith, confidence and confiding

• Sati, Smriti, mindfulness, attentive recollection, awareness

• Hiri, Hri, moral shame, disgust with evil, dominated by self-respect, dignity, conscience, proximate condition of self-respect

• Ottappa, Apatrapya, fear of evil consequence, moral dread, proximate condition of respect for others

• Alobha, Alobha, absence of greed, non-attachment, generosity

• Adosa, Advesha, non-aversion, absence of hatred or antipathy, good will

• Tatramajjhittata, balance of mind, equilibration, even-mindedness, impartiality, neutrality of mind, equanimity (upekkha)

• Kayapassaddhi, tranquility, composure of mental body

• Cittapassaddhi, tranquility, composure of consciousness

• Kayalahuta, lightness, buoyancy, agility of mental body

• Cittalahuta, lightness, buoyancy, agility of consciousness

• Kayamuduta, softness, malleability, adaptability, pliancy of mental body

• Cittamuduta, softness, malleability, adaptability, pliancy of consciousness

• Kayakammannata, readiness, wieldiness, adaptability, efficiency of mental body

• Cittammannata, readiness, wieldiness, adaptability, efficiency of consciousness 

• Kayapagunnata, proficiency, competence, vigor or fitness of mental body 

• Cittapagunnata, proficiency, competence, vigor or fitness of consciousness

• Kayujukata, straightness, uprightness, rectitude of mental body 

• Cittujukata, straightness, uprightness, rectitude of consciousness

• Samma Vaca Samyag Vak, right speech, alternately, abstinence from wrong speech

• Samma Kammanta, Samyak Karmanta, right action, alternately, abstinence from wrong action

• Samma Ajiva, Samyag Ajiva, right livelihood, means of subsistence, alternately, or from wrong livelihood

• Karuna, Karuna, compassion, sympathy or mercy, gentle affection, aspiration to be truly helpful

• Mudita, Mudita, appreciative, altruistic, sympathetic or empathetic joy, gladness or joy in another's success, well-being or happiness

• Panna, Prajna, wisdom, discernment, intelligence; also used for common sense, ingenuity; amoha

★ Thought Process (Citta vithi), or the rise and fall of thoughts. Cittas involved in the sense door and mind door process. The arising and putting away of sense and mind objects.

"We are confronted with a phenomenon, and through one or more of the senses it is noticed as an object. The mind receives the sense-impression, proceeds to investigate it, and comes to a decision in regard to it which may lead to impulsive non-volitional action, or to deliberate volitional action, and then the incident is registered as a memory and sinks down into the subconscious—and so a concept is born. In future, a word or words will be used to describe the experience." Knight

The stream of Bhavanga: mind as the ground of becoming, subconscious, stream, life continuum. Vithi-citta is the consciousness of the cognitive series. Khanika-vado theory of momentariness, reality in a string of tiny pulses. Tittihi khana a moment of mind, the single motion picture frame, different from those before and after. The cognitive series:

• Atita bhavanga past bhavanga, past-life continuum

• Bhavanga calana vibrating of the bhavanga

• Bhavanga upaccheda arrest of the bhavanga, arising of the sensible or perceptible

• Panca advaravajjana citta five sense-door consciousness, advertence, adverting (turning towards) consciousness (avajjana) searching for the source (sense) of disturbance of bhavanga

• Panca vinnana citta the five senses, sense consciousness

• Sampaticchana citta receiving consciousness, the mind-door adverting consciousness (mano-dvarajjana citta)

• Santirana citta investigating consciousness, probes for pleasant-unpleasantness, prior to decision

• Votthabbana citta determining consciousness, decision

• Javana cittas seven moments of apperception, impulse, on contact, lit. running (see vedana)

• Tadalambana cittas two moments of retention or registering consciousness

• (Stream of) Bhavanga. (Wiki)

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People on the Path (Patthetu)

And some of their aspirations

akinsana one who owns nothing

anagariya homelessness

arahant, Arhat, worthy one, accomplished one 

ariya, arya, honorable, noble ones

asamsagga aloofness from society

Avalokitesvara, bodhisattva of compassion, feminized as Guan Yin 觀音 (attends the cries), a bodhisattva conceived as merciful to those in special need.

bodhi enlightenment, awakening

ceto-pariya-nana intuition and telepathy 

dibba-cakkhu divine eye, a higher order of seeing

dibba-sota divine ear, a higher order of hearing

iddhi riddhi, siddhi powers, potency, accomplishment; psychic or spiritual power(s) (balani)

bhikku, bhikkuni, bhiksu, bhiksuni, monks and nuns 

pabajja, pravrajya, going forth, ordination, into the homeless life

pandita, vinnu wise person, master, doctor, teacher, pundit

parinibbana the final end of an enlightened being

parisuddha clean, sublime, sacred, purified 

patisandhi recollection of past lives

pattanumodana rejoicing in another's merit

patthetu seeker, candidate, aspirant

pattidana giving or transference of merit  

paviveka solitude, seclusion, retirement 

sacchikiriya realization, experiencing 

samana a contemplative, wanderer, ascetic; suppression

sappurisa person of integrity, a good, worthy, superior person

sappurisadhamma characteristics of a great or true man 

sarana, saranar, refuge, shelterm, sanctuary

sikkha training, discipline, study 

sikkhapada precept of training, discipline, study 

simhanada lion's roar, the cogent voice of spiritual authority

sota, srotas, stream

sotapanna stream enterer, stream winner, one having abandoned the first three fetters

sotapatti stream entry

suddhi purity

tunhibhava silence; ariya tunhibhava noble silence 

vinaya rules of the Buddhist order, discipline

visuddhi purification, excellence, rectitude 

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Pleasant States (Sukkha, Kusala) 

anudaya sympathy, compassion, kindness

anukampa benevolence, compassion, tender concern

aveccappasada confirmed confidence, tested faith

kalyana fortunate, happy, advantageous, pleasant

karuna compassion, sympathy or mercy, gentle affection, aspiration to be truly helpful

katannu to have the sense of what has been done; knowing or recognition of what has been done for you SN48:10

katannuta thankfulness, gratitude, gratefulness

katannuta-kataveda gratitude and its reciprocity, being thankful, with readiness to show appreciation and return kindness

khamanasila, khama, or titikkha, forgiveness, willingness to let go of anger, resentment or vengefulness. Khanti is sometimes used, but this is closer to acceptance or tolerance.

metta, maitri, loving-kindness, love, goodwill, friendship, fraternal love, bestowing happiness, amity, or benevolence, without desire to possess 

pamojja joy, gladness, relief, exhultation, exhilaration

passaddhi, tranquility, calm or relaxation, rest, arising from enthusiasm, confidence, brightness, serenity of mind

pema, prema love and affection; as attachment: carnal love, selfish affectionate desire

piti, priti, exhilaration, elation, ecstasy, rapture, joy, bliss, delight, zest, refreshment, enthusiasm. 5 levels, from the lowest: minor (or goosebumps) rapture; momentary rapture; showering rapture; uplifting rapture; pervading or fulfilling rapture

piya, priya endearment (can be trouble if clinging attachment is involved)

santi, shanti, peace, calm, tranquility, passaddhi 

santosa contentment, pleasure, satisfaction 

santutthi contentment, satisfaction

sata comfort, ease

somanassa, saumanasya, mental pleasure, joy, gladness, serenity of mind, ease, sometimes regarded a higher feeling than piti

subha beautiful; fortunate, auspicious, lucky

sukha, sukha, happiness, pleasantness, pleasure, ease, satisfaction, happiness, blessedness, well-being

kayasukha, bodily or physical happiness, health

cittasukha, mental happiness

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Reality and Illusion (Yathabhuta, Maya)

akincanna nothingness 

asankhata, asamskrita, unconditioned, uncreated, unproduced, nibbana, the opposite of samsara

kalapas atoms, elementary particles, miniscule elements

maya, maya, illusion, deceit

nibbana, nirvana, the end of suffering, from nibbati, to cool by blowing.  (Wiki)

pakiti, prakriti, nature, natural conditions

parinibbana the final end of an enlightened being

samana a contemplative

sammati convention, conventional reality, relative truth

samsara, samsara, the wandering, journeying, continual or phenomenal change, moving about continuously; round of death and rebirth, transmigration, round of repeated becoming. (Wiki)

sunnata, sunyata, the void, nothingness, emptiness. (Wiki)

tathata, tathata, sometimes described in Mahayana as being the opposite of phenomenon, immutable and immoveable, formless, unmade, devoid of self-nature. It might be wise to disagree with immutable and immoveable.

tathabhava, tathata, bhutatathata suchness

tathata, actuality

vipallasa distortion, illusion

yathabhuta, yathabhutam, reality-as-it-is, things as they really are

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Rebirth (Punabhava, Punarbhava) 

This is not the same as reincarnation, which is literally "going into meat again." What "goes back in" in reincarnation is the Atta or spirit, which does not exist in Buddhism. Instead a being is rebirthed or reproduced, re-emerges with a sense of continuity with the past due to some continuous factors. (Wiki)

abhinibbatti to become, be reproduced, to result

ayatim punabbhava-bhinibbatti renewal of being in the future 

bhavanga the subconscious continuum of existennce

cuti-citta mind disconnecting the present life

gandhabba thread of being to be reborn

maranasanna javana citta, the terminal mental state of the dying entity that gives rise to the paṭisandhi vinnana or re-linking consciousness in another life. At the moment of death this predominating appetite (tanha) becomes a grasping force (upadana) that attracts to itself another existence. 

pubbenivasa past life

punabbhava, punarbhava, rebecoming, renewal of being, renewed existence

patisandhi a relinking

patisandhi citta the again linking up mind, relinking mind

patisandhi vinnana the again linking up consciousness; the relinking, rejoining or rebirth consciousness

pubbe nivasanussati-nana remembering previous births (1/3 of samma nana in 10-fold path)

samvattanika-vinnana evolving consciousness

upapatti reappearance, rebirth, rearising, reemergence (with good and bad destinations)

vatta cycle of birth, death and rebirth 

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Speech (Vaca)

avadana similes, parables, metaphors

dhamma can refer to any mind-object 

nirutti language

pannatti conventional term, description, conceptual entity, such as first-person speech

samanna verbal designation 

subhasita well-spoken, concerning one's well being and progress

sammuti convention, by common consent

sammuti-sacca conventional truth, truth of general opinion, relative truth

tiracchana-katha pointless talk, low speech, literally animal conversations

udana inspired utterance, exclamation, expression of intense feeling

viggayha-katha contentious talk, quarrelling, disputing

vitakkavicara, vitarka-vicchara, discursive thought, inner monologue

vohara-sacca marketplace truth, usable truth

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Unpleasant States (Dukkha, Akusala)

abadha affliction 

agha grief, pain, suffering, misfortune

anabhirati dissatisfaction 

apaya state of deprivation, misery, loss, misfortune, ruin

akatannuta ingratitude, thanklessness 

akatavedita ingratitude, thanklessness 

attanuvada self-reproach, self-criticism, a fear

bhaya fear, fright, dread, terror, cowardice

dara anguish, distress, anxiety

domanassa grief, sorrow, affliction, distress, displeasure, mental suffering or unpleasantness

duggati unhappy states, opposite sugati

injita perturbed, shaken, agitated; vacillation

kankha perplexity, doubt, uncertainty

nigghata depression

piyehi vippayoga dukkha suffering from absence of love and caring, from what or who is dear

uparambha, upanaha resentment, grudge

uttasa fright, alarm, dread, fear

yampiccham na labhati dukkha suffering from failure to realize cravings or desires

vighata vexation, distress

vihesa annoyance, vexation, worry

vimati uncertainty, doubt, perplexity, consternation

vinipata a place of suffering, a bad falling, state of loss, ruin or misfortune

viparinama dukkha suffering due to change 

vipariyasa insanity, mental derangement, perversion, perversity

vippatisara regret, remorse, bad conscience

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View (Ditthi, Drishti)

akiriya-ditthi non-action, moral impotency, the view that actions aren't connected

amara-vikkhepa eel-wriggling, sophistry, evasiveness

amara-vikheppika endless equivocation

attanuditthi self-view, belief that the true self is eternal spirit

attavadupadana clinging to the theory of soul, self-doctrine 

ditthi, drishti, view, point of view, perspective. outlook, opinion, belief, understanding. The default value of this word is negative in Buddhism: misinterpretation, prejudice, prejudgment, speculative views, dogma, unless qualified by a word like samma

ditthijukkhama straightening or correcting the views

ditthitthanna standpoint for views, ground or position for false views

lokiya mundane understanding, knowing accordingly anubodha

lokuttara supra-mundane penetration, deep comprehension (pativedha)

mannana misconceptions, illusion, imagination

micchaditthi, mithyadrishti, wrong views, misbelief, misunderstanding

nanatta diversity, not in positive sense, complication rather than complexity, more like papanca, opposite ekatta unity

nippapanca simplification, opposite of papanca

niyativada determinism view, fatalism

papanca, prapanca, conceptual proliferation, diversification, differentiation, diffuseness, elaboration, multiplication, complication, embellishment, complication, ideas running wild, self-reflexive thinking, reification, tautology, objectification  DN 14, MN 18. (Wiki)

papanca-sanna-sankha, concepts thus derived 

papancita products of conceptual proliferation

paramattha-sacca ultimate truth

parinna, full understanding, comprehension; exact knowledge, discernment 

sampajanna, samprajanya, comprehensive understanding, also important in samma sati

vipallasa distortion, corruption, perversion, inversion

vipassanupakkilesa corruption of insight, intense experiences misconstrued into wrong belief (micchaditthi) regarding enlightenment, including experiences of light, psychic knowledge, rapture, serenity, pleasure, extreme conviction, excessive effort, obsession, indifference, and contentment

vohara-sacca marketplace truth, usable truth (opposite paramattha-sacca)

★ Speculative views derive from (SN III 12:33):

• avijja, avidya, ignorance, nescience, unawareness, not knowing, blindness, delusion, misunderstanding.

• adassana not seeing

• anabhisamaya not breaking through 

• ananubodha not comprehending 

• appativedha not penetrating

• asallakkhana not discerning

• anupalakkhana not discriminating

• apaccu-palakkhana not differentiating

• asamapekkhana not examining

• appaccu-pekkhana not closely examining

• apaccakkhakamma not directly cognizing

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Worlds (Loka, Lokya) 

The cartography of the afterlife gets extremely elaborate even in Theravada. Only the main terms and names for groups of realms are given here as starting points for deeper searches.

★ There are Three Worlds, realms or planes (Tiloka, Trailokya). (Wiki)

kamaloka, kamabhava world of sense and desire

rupaloka, rupabhava world of form

arupaloka, arupabhava formless world

★ In the world of Sense and Desire are the Six Realms, worlds, realms, states of existence. (Wiki)

• Deva-loka, Devalokya Realm of Celestial Beings. Some of the divine beings (devas) inhabit worlds above kamaloka. (Wiki)

• Asura-kaya Titan Realm (Wiki)

• Manussa-loka, Manusyalokya Human Realm (Wiki)

• Pettivisaya Realm of Hungry Ghosts (petta, preta), (Wiki)

• Tiracchanayoni, Tirygyoni, Animal Birth. (Wiki)

• Niraka or Niraya, Niraka, Hell Realm, see MN 130 (Wiki)

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VII. Glossary of Miscellaneous Terms

ability bhavyata

accumulation (as of kamma) ayuhana

aeon kappa, kalpa, world cycle

all sabba

animal tiracchana

association with superior people sappurisasaṃseva 

attainment sampada, samapatti accomplishment, success

bad akusala demerit, unskillful states and deeds, karmically unprofitable, unwholesome, flawed, ineffective, productive of unhappy results

barrenness khila

base vatthu physical base of citta

beloved piya, priya, dear

benefit anisama advantage

body kaya group

breakthrough abhisamaya epiphany

breath pana, prana

buddha nature buddhata Mahayana doctrine, a nature inherent in all beings and potential for enlightenment. 

Buddhism,  dhamma-vinaya name until 19th century, doctrine and discipline

character, carita, cariya nature, temperament; mode of conduct, psychological types, behavior, exercise

common man puthujjana average man, worldling

condition thana, sthana, state, possibility

condition of nature sabhavadhamma phenomenon, event, property or quality experienced in and of itself

conditioned saguna, qualified, Sanskrit, as in Saguna Brahman, Brahman with qualities.

conducive opanayika leading to

confinement sambadha

convention sammuti 

conventional truth sammuti-sacca truth of general opinion, relative truth

contented appiccha desiring little, easily satisfied

destination gati bad destination duggati

destruction khaya

disposition adhimutti

divine beings devas, devas, even in Theravada there are gods and divine beings in unseen realms (see world loka) but these beings are mortal as well

door dvara gate

dyad dvaya 

enmity vera

evil papa wrongdoing, sin

evil desire papiccha

evil one mara temptation, dissipation, the killer, personification of unwholesome impulses

exceed the right amount atinameti

faith saddha, sraddha, Confidence, reliance, trust. Despite the value place on this, personal empirical verification of Dhamma teachings remains fundamental to Buddhist training

fearlessness abhaya

forgiveness khamanasila, khama, or titikkha. Khanti is sometimes used, but this is closer to acceptance or tolerance.

friend mitta companion

friendship  kalyana-mittata, kalyana-mitrata, advantageous friendships, parents, teachers and spiritual friends. (Wiki)

fulfillment paripuri 

gentleness soracca

good kusala merit, skillful states and deeds, karmically profitable, wholesome, efficient, productive of happy results

harm anattha

health arogya

heedfulness appamada, apramada, diligence, vigilance, conscientiousness, care, carefulness

honesty ajjava integrity, candor

honesty soceyya purity

human types puggala-pannatti

illumination obhasa

impediments kincana

imperfection upakilesa corruption impurity, depravity, perversion

interest vyapara interestedness; calling, vocation, undertaking

karma kamma action, acts, normally associated with intention (cetana). (Wiki)

karmic results vipaka

karmic fruits phala

karmic matrix kammayoni

karmically cumulative existence kammabhava

knowledge (higher) abhinna, abhijna, intellectual acumen

light abha

light aloka illumination

lotus padma

material amisa worldly

matrices matika

method naya

method patipada way, line of conduct

modesty lajjavan

monk, nun bhikku, bhikkuni, bhiksu, bhiksuni

obstruction avarana

one eka

opening okasa 

out of body experience manomaya mind-made

path magga, marga way, road

peace santi, shanti

permission okasa open space

prayer patthana, abhipatthana, aspiration, desire; there is no petitionary or intercessory prayer, there is no real praying to ...

processes niyamas 

quality akara aspect, reason

resort gocara abode, province, pasture

respect puja, puja, worship, honor, devotional observance

resting place senasana 

restraint samvara guarding

restraint or control of the senses or faculties indriya samvara

reverence apacayana act of respect

reverence garava

right samma full, complete optimal

righthand side dakkhina, dakshina; lefthand side is vama, vama

security khema safety

seeing dassana vision

self-confidence vesarajja ground of

self-reliance paccatta for oneself

sense or mental mental object arammana

spiritual niramisa non-carnal, having no meat, without attachment, opposite samisa

stain mala, mala, impurity, dirt

step pada, pad, foot, path, track

straightforwardness ajjavan

substitution tadanga substitution of opposites, as simple replacement of akusala with kusala 

suitability sappaya beneficial, salubrious

suppression vikkhambhana-pahana abandoning, abandonment

sutra sutta, sutra, thread, root of suture

theory and practice pariyatti and patipatti

true man sappurisa virtuous or superior person

unification ekaggata attention to one subject, one-pointedness

unified ekagga concentrated, concentric

untrue man asappurisa (sappurisa = true man)

uprooting samugghata abolition, removal

volunteer pubbakari one who volunteers to help others selflessly

wheel cakka, cakra circle

wheel of dhamma dhammachakka, dharmacakra

worldly samisa carnal

wrong miccha, opposite of samma

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VIII. Final Words:

As he breathed his last:

Vayadhamma samkhara, appamadena sampadetha

Compound beings are ephemeral, strive with heedful-diligence *

*neither word, heedful nor diligent, conveys the full meaning of appamada, which also implies zeal. Accomplish earnestly has also been used.